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New discoveries at Tell Muhammad

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Archaeologists have made new discoveries at Tell Muhammad, Iraq, following a two-month period of intensive archaeological research.

Under the direction of the University of Catania and its Department of Humanistic Sciences, the Baghdad Urban Archaeological Project, with support from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, the research team suggest that the city’s origins now trace back to the early Paleo-Babylonian era, known as the age of Hammurabi.

The archaeological evidence also indicates that the city was abandoned during the fall of Babylon in 1595 BC, orchestrated by the Hittite ruler Mursili I, as indicated by the historical texts found at Tell Muhammad.

The primary focus of the excavation campaign was to unearth the intricate system of fortifications and water management that marked the city’s northeastern side. Over the course of these excavations, the researchers unearthed a section of the surrounding wall, demarcating a canal or even a river port along the Tigris River.

Image Credit : University of Catania

The entrance led to a complex system featuring a staircase ascending to a sizable elevated terrace with an adjacent tower, as well as a canal integral to the city’s intricate sewerage system. The sewer canal has an internal support system and terracotta pipes designed to expedite the flow of wastewater. At the summit of the staircase stood a tower, while the external open space housed a cistern initially used for water collection and subsequently converted into a drainage ditch.

Within the city walls, the excavations also unveiled structures associated with grain processing and bread-making, as well as ovens with dual purposes, including the liquefaction of bitumen – essential for waterproofing vessels and water management facilities.

One notable discovery is a bathroom with an underlying latrine and a sacred space containing an altar and tombs dedicated to the cult of ancestors, known as “kispum” in Babylonian, as attested in contemporary cuneiform texts.

Image Credit : University of Catania

Alongside the characteristic ceramic forms from the Paleo-Babylonian era, three valuable cylindrical seals with administrative functions were also found that display iconography and inscriptions typical of that period. In addition to these seals, terracotta votive plaques adorned with female imagery, models of beds linked to sacred marriage, and figurines of musicians were also discovered, all representing elements of the Babylonian tradition from the early 2nd millennium BC.

University of Catania

Header Image Credit : University of Catania

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Archaeology

Study indicates that Firth promontory could be an ancient crannog

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A study by students from the University of the Highlands and Islands has revealed that a promontory in the Loch of Wasdale in Firth, Orkney, could be the remains of an ancient crannog.

A crannog is a partially or entirely artificial island, typically built in lakes and estuarine waters of Scotland from the prehistoric period onward.

Crannogs were used as dwellings, taking advantage of the natural surroundings that may have served to provide a defensive purpose.

Despite significant variations in methodology, most crannogs on mainland Scotland were built by driving timber piles into the loch bed and filling the interior with peat, brush, stones, or timber to create a solid foundation.

In largely treeless regions like the Western Isles, these island dwellings utilised a diverse mix of natural, artificially enlarged, or entirely artificial islets.

The discovery was made by students from the UHI Archaeology Institute, who were conducting test-pitting on a promontory at the northern end of the Loch of Wasdale.

According to a press statement by UHI: “It appears as an islet on the 1882 Ordnance Survey map. Little is known about the site, but the fact the shoreside edges appear to show the remains of walling led to the suggestion it may be a crannog.”

In his Reminiscences of an Orkney Parish, John Firth (1838-1922) wrote that this islet was once home to a kirk: “During the Middle Ages several chapels existed in the district now known as the parish of Firth – one on the island in the Loch of Wasdale.”

The test-pitting revealed large quantities of cairn-like rubble, in addition to more structural remains or a stone surface, indicating that the entire promontory/islet is artificial.

Martin Carruthers, a lecturer at UHI, said: “A structure made up of some very large masonry seems to lurk at the heart of the cairn makeup. Constructing this ‘monument’ must have been a very substantial undertaking.”

“In terms of artefacts, apart from some later post-medieval glazed pottery, we recovered a single worked flint, probably a ‘thumbnail’ scraper, which is most likely later Neolithic in date,” added Carruthers.

Header Image Credit : Shutterstock

Sources : UHI

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Archaeologists identify the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II

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Archaeologists from Sorbonne University have identified the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II, otherwise known as Ramesses the Great.

Ramesses II was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty during the New Kingdom period.
His reign is often regarded as the most celebrated in Egypt’s history, marked by several major military campaigns and numerous monument construction projects.

Based on supporting historical accounts, most Egyptologists suggest that Ramesses II assumed the throne in 1279 BC and reigned until his death at the age of around 90 in 1212 or 1213 BC.

His remains were interred in a tomb complex (designated KV7) in the Valley of the Kings, located opposite the tomb of his sons (KV5), and near the tomb (KV8) of his son and successor, Merenptah.

During the reign of Ramesses III during the 20th Dynasty, the tomb of Ramesses II was looted by grave robbers. Ancient texts record that priests moved his remains to the tomb of Queen Ahmose Inhapy, and then to the tomb of the high priest Pinedjem II.

His final resting place was a tomb (designated TT320), located next to Deir el-Bahari, in the Theban Necropolis opposite Luxor. The tomb is a Royal Cache containing the mummified remains of more than 50 kings, queens, and other royal family members of the New Kingdom period.

The mummy of Ramesses II was discovered in TT320 during excavations in 1881. He was found placed in a simple wooden coffin, suggesting that this was meant as a temporary measure until a more permanent resting place could be determined.

A new study, published in the Revue d’Égyptologie, suggests that a fragment of a sarcophagus discovered in 2009 at Abydos was part of the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II.

The sarcophagus fragment was found in a Coptic monastery and has recently been re-examined by Egyptologist Frédéric Payraudeau from Sorbonne University.

According to the study author, the decoration and texts on the sarcophagus fragment indicate that it was first used by Ramesses II (evidenced by the cartouche of Ramesses II), and later reused by a high priest of the 21st Dynasty, Menkheperre (around 1000 BC) who likely had the sarcophagus transported to Abydos after KV7 was looted.

Header Image Credit : Sarcophagus fragment – Kevin Cahail

Sources : cnrs | Le sarcophage de Ramsès II remployé à Abydos – Published in the Revue d’Égyptologie.

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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