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Scientists claim to have found the answer what existed before the Universe



Non-scientific versions of the answer to this question have basically been the basis of all religions and most philosophies.

Now a team of mathematicians from Canada and Egypt have used cutting-edge scientific theories and a huge set of equations to figure out what predates the universe in which we exist. The universe did not start with a Big Bang

In their work, they applied the theories of the world of quantum mechanics and found that the universe basically goes through four different phases.

Just as importantly, they discovered that this universe was… another universe, or more accurately, another “cosmological phase”.

Although the universe is infinite in size, it is cyclical and has always existed in one of four phases.

The universe continues to expand, but a team of mathematicians believes that certain changes caused by quantum mechanics will eventually stop the expansion and return everything to a near-infinity point, after which the universe will start expanding again.

The theory of the cyclic universe was expounded by mathematicians from Canada and Egypt. It is very difficult to understand, but one of the participants in the study, Professor Mir Faisal, outlined its main provisions.

Professor Mir Faisal said: “In our cosmological model, the universe did not start with a Big Bang, but there was a phase transition from one phase of the universe to another.”

“This is possible, since the universe can exist in four different phases, just as ordinary water can exist in three different phases. Just as we can learn about the properties of ice by studying the water that formed from it, we can learn about pre-big bang cosmology by studying the physics of this universe.”

“Using the developed model, we can study the physics of the cosmological phase before the beginning of our universe.”

In their model, scientists were able to figure out the state of the universe before the Big Bang. The mathematical equations in their model show that the expansion of the universe will stop at some point, and then immediately followed by a contraction phase.

Professor Mir added: “Other researchers have proposed a big bang and big crunch scenario, but these models have their own quirks.

“Singularities are bad in physics because they indicate a place where the laws of physics are violated, and in such places one cannot use physics to get meaningful results. The new cosmological model eliminates this feature. Therefore, the big bang singularity can also be avoided.”

In the cosmological model of scientists, the cyclical nature of the universe arises as a result of adding quantum effects to the cosmological model of the universe.

Professor Faisal explained that while there are many different approaches to quantum gravity, such as string theory and loop quantum gravity, what most of these different approaches have in common is that there is a minimum length below which space does not exist.

Many of these approaches also predict that there is also a maximum energy, and no object in the universe can have an energy greater than this maximum energy.

The research team incorporated the effect of minimum length and maximum energy into the cosmological model, after which they came up with a cyclic universe.

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Extraterrestrial life may be hiding in “terminator zones”




In a study published in the Astrophysical Journal, astrophysicists set out to find out if exoplanets could support life.

Astronomers have come to the conclusion that on the surface of some exoplanets there is a strip that may contain water, necessary for the existence of biological life. The terminator zone is the dividing line between the day and night sides of an exoplanet.

Many exoplanets are planets outside the solar system held by gravity. This means that one side of the planet is always facing the star they orbit, while the other side is in constant darkness.

The water on the dark side will most likely be in a frozen state, while on the light side it will be so hot that the water should just evaporate.

The terminator zone would be a “friendly place” – neither too hot nor too cold – in which liquid water could support extraterrestrial life.

Dr. Ana Lobo of the University of California, said: “The day side can be scalding hot, much uninhabitable, while the night side will be icy, potentially covered in ice. You need a planet that’s the right temperature for liquid water.”

“We’re trying to draw attention to planets with more limited amounts of water that, despite not having widespread oceans, might have lakes or other smaller bodies of liquid water, and that climate could actually be very promising.”

“By exploring these exotic climate states, we are improving our chances of finding and correctly identifying a habitable planet in the near future.”

The researchers created a model of their climate by analyzing different temperatures, wind patterns and radiative forcing, and found the “correct” zone on exoplanets that could contain life-supporting liquid water.

Researchers who are looking for life on exoplanets will now take into account the fact that it can hide in certain areas.

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Astronomers discover the strongest evidence for another Universe before the Big Bang




The notion of the Big Bang goes back nearly 100 years, when the first evidence for the expanding Universe appeared.

If the Universe is expanding and cooling today, that implies a past that was smaller, denser, and hotter. In our imaginations, we can extrapolate back to arbitrarily small sizes, high densities, and hot temperatures: all the way to a singularity, where all of the Universe’s matter and energy was condensed in a single point. 

For many decades, these two notions of the Big Bang — of the hot dense state that describes the early Universe and the initial singularity — were inseparable.

But beginning in the 1970s, scientists started identifying some puzzles surrounding the Big Bang, noting several properties of the Universe that weren’t explainable within the context of these two notions simultaneously. 

When cosmic inflation was first put forth and developed in the early 1980s, it separated the two definitions of the Big Bang, proposing that the early hot, dense state never achieved these singular conditions, but rather that a new, inflationary state preceded it. 

There really was a Universe before the hot Big Bang, and some very strong evidence from the 21st century truly proves that it’s so.

Although we’re certain that we can describe the very early Universe as being hot, dense, rapidly expanding, and full of matter-and-radiation — i.e., by the hot Big Bang — the question of whether that was truly the beginning of the Universe or not is one that can be answered with evidence. 

The differences between a Universe that began with a hot Big Bang and a Universe that had an inflationary phase that precedes and sets up the hot Big Bang are subtle, but tremendously important. After all, if we want to know what the very beginning of the Universe was, we need to look for evidence from the Universe itself.

Read the full article here.

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