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Necklace found in Neolithic grave reveals complex ancient culture

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According to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE, an ornate necklace discovered in a child’s grave at the ancient village of Ba’ja offers fresh insights into the social complexity of Neolithic culture.

Ba’ja is one of the largest neolithic villages in the Jordan area, covering an area of 3.7 acres with a population of up to 600 inhabitants. Like the nearby site of Basta, the settlement was built in 7000 BC during the PPNB (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) period. People of this era relied more extensively on domesticated animals to complement their previously mixed agrarian and hunter-gatherer diet.

Body adornments hold significant symbolic meaning, conveying cultural values and individual identities, making them immensely valuable in the examination of ancient societies.

In the study, archaeologists analysed materials that adorned the body of an eight-year-old child found in a burial at Ba’ja that contained over 2,500 colourful stones and shells, two exceptional amber beads, a large stone pendant, and a delicately engraved mother-of-pearl ring.

Through an analysis of the composition, craftsmanship, and spatial arrangement of these artifacts, the researchers deduced that they once constituted a unified multi-row necklace that has disintegrated over time. As a part of this investigation, the scholars crafted a physical reconstruction of the original necklace, currently exhibited at the Petra Museum in Southern Jordan.

The multi-row necklace, being one of the oldest and most remarkable Neolithic ornaments, offers fresh perspectives on the funerary customs of individuals who seemingly held elevated social status during the Neolithic period.

By reconstructing the necklace, the researchers suggest that the inhabitants of Ba’ja had meticulous craftsmanship and were able to procure exotic materials from distant regions. The investigation of this artefact also reveals intricate social dynamics among the community members involving skilled artisans, traders, and high-status individuals responsible for commissioning such prestigious pieces.

According to the researchers: “The analysis of the child’s necklace has yielded valuable information that enhances our understanding of the ritual practices and symbolic behaviour of the community of Ba`ja while shedding light on the artisanal and economic capabilities employed to serve these expressions. Despite its elaborate design, such a necklace was not created for exchange or trade purposes but was rather a part of the child’s burial, serving as a significant testament to the cultural practices of the time.”

PLOS ONE

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0288075

Header Image Credit : Alarashi et al – PLOS ONE, CC-BY 4.0

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Archaeology

Post-medieval township discovered in Scottish forest

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Archaeologists have uncovered the remains of a pre-medieval township in the Glen Brittle Forest on the Isle of Skye.

The discovery was made during an environmental survey before the harvest of a mature conifer plantation.

AOC Archaeologists have found traces of 28 buildings, consisting of houses, byres, barns and corn-drying kilns, which are surrounded by fields and stock enclosures that traditionally formed a small clachan (or township).

An early 19th century map surveyed by John Thomson in 1832 names the site as the township of Brunell, a small agricultural township which dates from the 17th and 18th centuries.

A passage in the Parish of Bracadale on Skye describes Brunell as: “The parish produces black cattle, sheep and horses. Black cattle is the main staple… from the returns of which the people pay their rents and supply themselves with necessities. There are small quantities of sheep on each farm, but there is no farm laid out entirely to sheep pasture”

During the late 18th century, the township experienced a decline due to farms consolidating land for sheep-grazing and reduced the need for labour, consequently displacing and leaving the small tenants adrift.

By the Ordnance Survey of 1881, the town had dwindled to merely two roofless buildings and several fields, suggesting that the entire population had abandoned the township by this time.

According to Forestry and Land Scotland, the survey data was used to guide machine operators during tree harvesting, ensuring they could fell trees without causing harm to any archaeological features.

Header Image Credit : Forestry and Land Scotland

Sources : Forestry and Land Scotland – Dig deeper: revealing the ruins of Brunell Township.

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Archaeology

Geophysical study finds evidence of “labyrinth” buried beneath Mitla

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A geophysical study has found underground structures and tunnels beneath Mitla – The Zapotec “Place of the Dead”

Mitla is an archaeological site associated with the Zapotec culture, located in the Oaxaca Valley in the present-day state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico.

The Zapotec civilisation emerged in the late 6th century BC, originating in the Central Valleys of the Etla. The culture was centred on the settlements of Oaxaca, San José Mogote, and Mitla, with the city of Monte Albán serving as the civic-ceremonial centre.

At its peak, the Zapotec had a population of more than 500,000 inhabitants, having developed sophisticated construction techniques, a writing system, two calendar systems, and complex agricultural cultivation.

In 2016, the Lyobaa Project, an institutional collaboration led by the National Institute of History and Anthropology (INAH) employed ground penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and ambient seismic noise interferometry (AIRSA) to explore potential archaeological features beneath the San Pablo Apóstol church, built atop the Zapotec ruins in Mitla.

Image Credit : Lyobaa Project

According to local legend, the church was constructed on an entrance way to an underground labyrinth, serving as a passage between the realm of the living to the realm of the dead, referred to as Mictlán in Nahuatl, meaning the “place of the dead” or “underworld.”

In 1674, the Dominican chronicler, Francisco Burgoa, described Spanish missionaries entering the labyrinth: “Such was the corruption and bad smell, the dampness of the floor, and a cold wind which extinguished the lights, that at the little distance they had already penetrated, they resolved to come out, and ordered this infernal gate to be thoroughly closed with masonry.”

As part of phase two of the Lyobaa Project, the researchers have identified buried architectural complexes and a series of corridors during a study of the Calvario, Arroyo, and del Sur groups within the archaeological zone.

The Arroyo group, located in the central area of the site has three quadrangle features connected by tunnels that likely date from AD 1200 during the Late Postclassic period.

The project also conducted a survey of the quadrangular plaza where the San Pablo Apóstol church was constructed on the remains of a pre-Hispanic temple. Beneath the plaza the researchers found that there are four mounds with clay internal cores.

Archaeologist, Denisse Argote, said: “We were able to determine that, although the core of the stepped structure is solid, the foundation of the historic church requires short-term intervention to guarantee its conservation, so measures must be taken to ensure its structural stability.”

“There are cracks in the historic building, since it does not have a foundation and, underneath, in what corresponds to the remains of the pre-Hispanic building, it seems that there are areas with small cavities,” added Argote.

Header Image Credit : Shutterstock

Sources : INAH

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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