A Polish-Egyptian team of archaeologists have recommenced excavations at Kom El-Dikka in Alexandria, Egypt.
Alexandria (as the new capital of Egypt) was founded by its namesake – Alexander the Great in 332 BC, who drove the Persians from Egypt.
The Ptolemaic dynasty, which was founded by one of Alexander’s generals, contributed to the development of the city into a major cosmopolitan metropolis. By the time of Augustus during the Roman period, the city grid encompassed an area of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi), and the total population was around 500,000–600,000.
Kom El-Dikka was a high-status residential district, and later it became a major civic centre with a bath complex (thermae), auditoria (lecture halls), and a theatre. Today, Kom el-Dikka is the largest and most complete above ground archaeological site in Alexandria. It provides large amounts of evidence of urban life in Roman Egypt, including early villas and their mosaics, and late Roman public works.
The researchers are excavating several 1st to 3rd century AD dwellings from the Roman period, in addition to several antique cisterns and an artificial hill created as a result of human activity between the thermal baths and the theatre.
Dr. Grzegorz Majcherek, from the Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology of the University of Warsaw, said: “Excavations are underway in ancient cisterns supplying water to the nearby Imperial baths. Our primarily goal is to identify the subsequent construction phases and determine the chronology of this unique site. It is the only example of this type of building in Egypt, rising high above the surrounding area and acting as a water tower”.
Previous excavations of the dwellings have revealed multi-coloured mosaic flooring, including a mosaic with depictions of lotus flowers that indicates the high status of the occupants. A recent survey suggests that further mosaics are waiting to be uncovered despite the destruction of the 3rd century and robbing of the Roman building material.
In 2004, Dr. Grzegorz Majcherek, announced the discovery of a large complex of well-preserved lecture halls from the late antiquity (5th-7th centuries AD). These are the only material remains of the ancient university known from the Mediterranean area.
Header Image Credit : Shutterstock
New chambers discovered in Ancient Egyptian pyramid of Sahura
An Egyptian-German archaeological mission has discovered several new chambers in the pyramid of Sahura, located in the Abu Sir Pyramid Field south of Giza.
Sahura, meaning “He who is close to Re”, was a pharaoh of Ancient Egypt and the second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty (2465 BC to 2325 BC). Sahure’s reign is seen as one of economic and cultural prosperity, opening new trading links to the land of Punt and expanding the flow of goods from the Levantine coast.
Choosing not to follow the tradition of being buried in the royal necropolises of Saqqara and Giza, Sahura instead chose for his pyramid to be constructed at Abusir. Although smaller in size than the pyramids of his predecessors, Sahura’s pyramid complex was decorated with over 10,000 m2 of finely carved reliefs, some of which are considered “unparalleled in Egyptian art.”
The interior chambers of the pyramid were extensively damaged by grave robbers during antiquity, making it impossible to precisely reconstruct the substructure plan.
Image Credit : Mohamed Khaled
A restoration project led by Egyptologist Dr. Mohamed Ismail Khaled of the Department of Egyptology at Julius-Maximilians-Universität of Würzburg (JMU) has discovered a series of storage chambers and passageways. The northern and southern parts of these chambers are badly damaged, however, remnants of the original walls and parts of the floor can still be seen.
Using 3D laser scanning with a ZEB Horizon portable LiDAR scanner, the team conducted detailed surveys to map the extensive external areas and the narrow corridors and chambers inside.
According to the researchers: “Careful documentation of the floor plan and dimensions of each storage chamber has greatly enhanced our understanding of the pyramid’s interior. During restoration, a balance between preservation and presentation was pursued to ensure the structural integrity of the chambers while making them accessible for future study and potentially the public.”
During the restoration work, the project was also able to uncover the floor plan of the antechamber which had deteriorated over time. Consequently, the destroyed walls were replaced with new retaining walls. The eastern wall of the antechamber was badly damaged, and only the northeast corner and about 30 centimetres of the eastern wall were still visible.
Header Image – Pyramid of Sahura – Public Domain
Archaeologists identify runesmith who carved the Jelling Stone runes
Archaeologists using 3D scans have identified who carved the Jelling Stone runes, located in the town of Jelling, Denmark.
The first of the two Jelling stones was erected by King Gorm the Old in honour of his wife Thyra. Following this, a second stone was raised by King Gorm’s son, Harald Bluetooth, to commemorate his parents and to mark his victorious rule over Denmark and Norway, as well as his role in converting the Danish people to Christianity.
Researchers from the National Museum in Copenhagen have conducted 3D scans to analyse the carving tracks of the runes. Similar to handwriting, the carving techniques are relatively unique to each runesmith, as each stonemason holds the chisel at a certain angle and strikes with a certain force with the hammer.
By studying the angle of the chisel grooves and the distance between them, comparisons can be made with other rune stones, such as the Laeborg Runestone which stands approximately 30 kilometres southwest of Jelling
The analysis has revealed that the Laeborg Runestone has the same carving technique, which also has the inscription: “Ravnunge-Tue carved these runes after Thyra, his queen”.
Queen Thyra is mentioned in the two Jelling stones as the mother of Harald Bluetooth, wife of Gorm the Elder and “penitent of Denmark”, but Thyra’s name is also mentioned in two other runestones, that of Læborg, carved by Ravnunge-Tue in honor of Thyra, his queen, and that of Bække 1, which bears the inscription “Ravnunge-Tue and Fundin and Gnyple, the three made the stop of Thyra.”
For many years, researchers have debated whether Læborgstenen’s Queen Thyra is the same as the Thyra mentioned on the stones from Jelling.
According to the researchers: “The discovery in itself is interesting because it can link another person to the Jelling dynasty, but it is especially interesting because the realization brings with it another startling revelation, explains Lisbeth Imer, runologist and senior researcher at the National Museum.”
“It is an absolutely incredible discovery that we now know the name of the rune maker behind the Jelling stone, but what makes the discovery even wilder is that we know Ravnunge-Tue’s boss. It is Queen Thyra from Jelling, i.e. Harald Blåtand’s mother, there can no longer be much doubt about that, and that puts the discovery in a completely different light,” says Lisbeth Imer.
Header Image Credit : Shutterstock
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