Connect with us

Archaeology

Clay jar points to connection between Israel under the Reign of King Solomon and the Kingdom of Sheba

Published

on

Archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have deciphered a Sabaean inscription on a clay jar, pointing to a connection between Israel under the Reign of King Solomon and the Kingdom of Sheba.

According to the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament, Solomon, also called Jedidiah, was the penultimate ruler of an amalgamated Israel and Judah sometime around 970 to 931 BC. The Bible says that Solomon dedicated the First Temple in Jerusalem to Yahweh, or God in Judaism, and is depicted as a wealthy, wise, and powerful figure, as well as one of the 48 Jewish prophets.

In 2012, archaeologists conducting excavations in the Ophel area south of the Temple Mount, uncovered a large jar inscribed with text written in Canaanite script, from which the ancient Hebrew script used during the time of the First Temple derives.

Only seven letters from the inscription survive, which according to a new study published in the Hebrew University’s Jerusalem Journal of Archaeology, is actually “Ancient South Arabian,” the script that was used in the south-west part of the Arabian Peninsula (the Yemen region of today), where the Kingdom of Sheba was the dominant kingdom at the time.

The Kingdom of Sheba was the home of the biblical “Queen of Sheba”, a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. In the original story, she brings a caravan of valuable gifts for Solomon, however, her existence is disputed by academics. Modern historians identify Sheba with the South Arabian kingdom of Saba in present-day Yemen and Ethiopia, while competing theories places the kingdom in South Arabia or the Horn of Africa.

According to the study, the inscription on the jar reads: , “[ ]shy l’dn 5,” means five “ šǝḥēlet,” referring to one of the four ingredients mentioned in the Bible (Exodus 30:34) required for the incense mixture. The “šǝḥēlet” was an essential ingredient in the incense that was burnt in the First and Second Temples and was called “tziporen” in Rabbinic literature.

The researchers suggest that this indicates a connection between Jerusalem of the 10th century BC (during the reign of Solomon) and the Kingdom of Sheba. The jar was manufactured in or near Jerusalem, and the inscription suggests a speaker of Sabaean who was involved in supplying the incense spices.

Dr. Vainstub, from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, said: “Deciphering the inscription on the jar teaches us not only about the presence of a speaker of Sabaean in Israel during the time of King Solomon, but also about the system of geopolitical relations in our region at the time – especially in light of the place where the jar was discovered, an area known for also being the administrative centre during the days of King Solomon. This is another testament to the extensive trade and cultural ties that existed between Israel under King Solomon and the Kingdom of Sheba.”

Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Header Image Credit : Shani Jaffe

Continue Reading

Archaeology

Study indicates that Firth promontory could be an ancient crannog

Published

on

By

A study by students from the University of the Highlands and Islands has revealed that a promontory in the Loch of Wasdale in Firth, Orkney, could be the remains of an ancient crannog.

A crannog is a partially or entirely artificial island, typically built in lakes and estuarine waters of Scotland from the prehistoric period onward.

Crannogs were used as dwellings, taking advantage of the natural surroundings that may have served to provide a defensive purpose.

Despite significant variations in methodology, most crannogs on mainland Scotland were built by driving timber piles into the loch bed and filling the interior with peat, brush, stones, or timber to create a solid foundation.

In largely treeless regions like the Western Isles, these island dwellings utilised a diverse mix of natural, artificially enlarged, or entirely artificial islets.

The discovery was made by students from the UHI Archaeology Institute, who were conducting test-pitting on a promontory at the northern end of the Loch of Wasdale.

According to a press statement by UHI: “It appears as an islet on the 1882 Ordnance Survey map. Little is known about the site, but the fact the shoreside edges appear to show the remains of walling led to the suggestion it may be a crannog.”

In his Reminiscences of an Orkney Parish, John Firth (1838-1922) wrote that this islet was once home to a kirk: “During the Middle Ages several chapels existed in the district now known as the parish of Firth – one on the island in the Loch of Wasdale.”

The test-pitting revealed large quantities of cairn-like rubble, in addition to more structural remains or a stone surface, indicating that the entire promontory/islet is artificial.

Martin Carruthers, a lecturer at UHI, said: “A structure made up of some very large masonry seems to lurk at the heart of the cairn makeup. Constructing this ‘monument’ must have been a very substantial undertaking.”

“In terms of artefacts, apart from some later post-medieval glazed pottery, we recovered a single worked flint, probably a ‘thumbnail’ scraper, which is most likely later Neolithic in date,” added Carruthers.

Header Image Credit : Shutterstock

Sources : UHI

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Archaeology

Archaeologists identify the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II

Published

on

By

Archaeologists from Sorbonne University have identified the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II, otherwise known as Ramesses the Great.

Ramesses II was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty during the New Kingdom period.
His reign is often regarded as the most celebrated in Egypt’s history, marked by several major military campaigns and numerous monument construction projects.

Based on supporting historical accounts, most Egyptologists suggest that Ramesses II assumed the throne in 1279 BC and reigned until his death at the age of around 90 in 1212 or 1213 BC.

His remains were interred in a tomb complex (designated KV7) in the Valley of the Kings, located opposite the tomb of his sons (KV5), and near the tomb (KV8) of his son and successor, Merenptah.

During the reign of Ramesses III during the 20th Dynasty, the tomb of Ramesses II was looted by grave robbers. Ancient texts record that priests moved his remains to the tomb of Queen Ahmose Inhapy, and then to the tomb of the high priest Pinedjem II.

His final resting place was a tomb (designated TT320), located next to Deir el-Bahari, in the Theban Necropolis opposite Luxor. The tomb is a Royal Cache containing the mummified remains of more than 50 kings, queens, and other royal family members of the New Kingdom period.

The mummy of Ramesses II was discovered in TT320 during excavations in 1881. He was found placed in a simple wooden coffin, suggesting that this was meant as a temporary measure until a more permanent resting place could be determined.

A new study, published in the Revue d’Égyptologie, suggests that a fragment of a sarcophagus discovered in 2009 at Abydos was part of the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II.

The sarcophagus fragment was found in a Coptic monastery and has recently been re-examined by Egyptologist Frédéric Payraudeau from Sorbonne University.

According to the study author, the decoration and texts on the sarcophagus fragment indicate that it was first used by Ramesses II (evidenced by the cartouche of Ramesses II), and later reused by a high priest of the 21st Dynasty, Menkheperre (around 1000 BC) who likely had the sarcophagus transported to Abydos after KV7 was looted.

Header Image Credit : Sarcophagus fragment – Kevin Cahail

Sources : cnrs | Le sarcophage de Ramsès II remployé à Abydos – Published in the Revue d’Égyptologie.

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Trending

Generated by Feedzy