Scientists told how dangerous a meeting with aliens for humanity
Even if the aliens are not hostile, the very fact of contact with an extraterrestrial civilization can lead to conflicts on Earth.
Researchers around the world are now looking for a signal from representatives of extraterrestrial intelligence. And perhaps humanity will be able to establish contact with aliens in the future. But will this lead to dangerous consequences?
Scientists from the University of Pennsylvania believe that there are real risks to humanity from such contact, reports Science Alert. Firstly, the very fact of the existence of an extraterrestrial civilization can cause a wave of indignation among people who believe in God. This can lead to significant upheavals and even religious wars.
But scientists believe that the main risk is that the country that first establishes contact with aliens can monopolize all the knowledge received from them.
Even if initially there will be some exchange of information between different countries, then, as the experience of the Second World War showed (the authors cite the behavior of the allies in the anti-Hitler coalition, who became enemies after the war), everything can change over time.
As a result, conflicts over the possession of new technological developments may erupt, which may escalate into a world war.
But scientists from the Pennsylvania State University published their paper, in which they disagree with the conclusions made by their colleagues.
Scientists believe that it is very unlikely that only one of the countries will be able to make contact with potential aliens. And even if this happens, then this country will not be able to monopolize the new knowledge gained.
Scientists believe that the modern scientific community is so interconnected that such a scenario of events has a very low probability. Even if politicians get involved.
Extraterrestrial life may be hiding in “terminator zones”
In a study published in the Astrophysical Journal, astrophysicists set out to find out if exoplanets could support life.
Astronomers have come to the conclusion that on the surface of some exoplanets there is a strip that may contain water, necessary for the existence of biological life. The terminator zone is the dividing line between the day and night sides of an exoplanet.
Many exoplanets are planets outside the solar system held by gravity. This means that one side of the planet is always facing the star they orbit, while the other side is in constant darkness.
The water on the dark side will most likely be in a frozen state, while on the light side it will be so hot that the water should just evaporate.
The terminator zone would be a “friendly place” – neither too hot nor too cold – in which liquid water could support extraterrestrial life.
Dr. Ana Lobo of the University of California, said: “The day side can be scalding hot, much uninhabitable, while the night side will be icy, potentially covered in ice. You need a planet that’s the right temperature for liquid water.”
“We’re trying to draw attention to planets with more limited amounts of water that, despite not having widespread oceans, might have lakes or other smaller bodies of liquid water, and that climate could actually be very promising.”
“By exploring these exotic climate states, we are improving our chances of finding and correctly identifying a habitable planet in the near future.”
The researchers created a model of their climate by analyzing different temperatures, wind patterns and radiative forcing, and found the “correct” zone on exoplanets that could contain life-supporting liquid water.
Researchers who are looking for life on exoplanets will now take into account the fact that it can hide in certain areas.
Astronomers discover the strongest evidence for another Universe before the Big Bang
The notion of the Big Bang goes back nearly 100 years, when the first evidence for the expanding Universe appeared.
If the Universe is expanding and cooling today, that implies a past that was smaller, denser, and hotter. In our imaginations, we can extrapolate back to arbitrarily small sizes, high densities, and hot temperatures: all the way to a singularity, where all of the Universe’s matter and energy was condensed in a single point.
For many decades, these two notions of the Big Bang — of the hot dense state that describes the early Universe and the initial singularity — were inseparable.
But beginning in the 1970s, scientists started identifying some puzzles surrounding the Big Bang, noting several properties of the Universe that weren’t explainable within the context of these two notions simultaneously.
When cosmic inflation was first put forth and developed in the early 1980s, it separated the two definitions of the Big Bang, proposing that the early hot, dense state never achieved these singular conditions, but rather that a new, inflationary state preceded it.
There really was a Universe before the hot Big Bang, and some very strong evidence from the 21st century truly proves that it’s so.
Although we’re certain that we can describe the very early Universe as being hot, dense, rapidly expanding, and full of matter-and-radiation — i.e., by the hot Big Bang — the question of whether that was truly the beginning of the Universe or not is one that can be answered with evidence.
The differences between a Universe that began with a hot Big Bang and a Universe that had an inflationary phase that precedes and sets up the hot Big Bang are subtle, but tremendously important. After all, if we want to know what the very beginning of the Universe was, we need to look for evidence from the Universe itself.
Read the full article here.
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