Connect with us

Archaeology

Stone box containing rare ceremonial offerings discovered at Tlatelolco

Published

on

Archaeologists from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) have discovered a stone box containing ceremonial offerings during excavations of Temple “I”, also known as the Great Basement, at the Tlatelolco archaeological zone.

Tlatelolco was a pre-Columbian altepetl or city-state, located in the Valley of Mexico in present-day Mexico city.

The inhabitants, known as the Tlatelolca, were a Mexica Nahuatl-speaking people who settled in the region during the 13th century.

Tlatelolco emerged as the sister city to the Aztec-Mexica city-state of Tenochtitlan, offering refuge to the people of Tenochtitlan during the Spanish siege led by the conquistador Hernán Cortés.

Image Credit : Mauricio Marat

Archaeologists from INAH have uncovered a stone box at Temple “I”, a rectangular complex situated northwest of the Templo Mayor Tlatelolca.

According to the researchers, the box was deposited as a ceremonial offering sometime between AD 1375 and 1418 to consecrate an architectural extension of the temple in dedication to the Black Tezcatlipoca.

The Black Tezcatlipoca was the god of providence, the invisible and darkness, lord of the night, and ruler of the North, and was also associated with obsidian and conflict.

Excavations found a stone altar, likely used as a place of worship of the military elite, where they uncovered a sealed cist containing the stone box.

The box contains 59 pocket knives, 7 obsidian knives, and numerous copal blocks. According to archaeologist Laue Padilla, these items were used for acts of self-sacrifice by Tlatelolca priests and high-ranking officials.

The box might contain additional materials, which will be confirmed as archaeological work progresses. This includes detailed drawings of the various context levels, photogrammetric surveys to create three-dimensional images of the find, and soil sampling to identify associated organic matter.

Header Image Credit : Mauricio Marat

Sources : National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH)

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Archaeology

3,400-year-old shipwreck found with cargo mostly intact

Published

on

By

Archaeologists from the Israel Antiquities Authority Marine Unit have discovered a 3,400-year-old shipwreck with the cargo mostly intact.

The site was first identified during an underwater survey by Energean, an energy company searching for natural gas deposits beneath the Mediterranean Sea Floor.

This led to the discovery of the shipwreck and its cargo at a depth of 1.8 kilometers, along with its cargo that consists of Late Bronze Age Canaanite storage vessels.

IAA archaeologists, in collaboration with Energean, have used the deep sea exploratory vessel, “Energean Star” to conduct a visual inspection of the wreck site. This has revealed hundreds of ceramic vessels on the seabed, and a muddy layer which likely conceals a second layer and the wooden beams of the ship.

Jacob Sharvit, Head of the Israel Antiquities Authority Marine Unit, explains, “The ship seems to have sunk in crisis, either due to a storm or to an attempted piracy attack – a well-known occurrence in the Late Bronze Age. This is both the first and the oldest ship found in the Eastern Mediterranean deep sea, ninety kilometres from the nearest shore.”

Image Credit : IAA

Only two other ships from this period have been found – the boat from Cape Gelidonya and the Uluburun boat; both found off the Turkish coast. Both ships were found near the shore, suggesting that shipping routes followed the coastline between ports. However, this new discovery changes the understanding of ancient marine trade, demonstrating that ancient shipping also extended into deep waters.

“The ship is preserved at such a great depth that time has frozen since the moment of disaster – its body and contexts have not been disturbed by human hand (divers, fishermen, etc.); nor affected by waves and currents which do impact shipwrecks in shallower waters,” added Sharvit.

Header Image Credit : IAA

Sources : Israel Antiquities Authority

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Archaeology

Liquid containing cremated human remains is the world’s oldest known wine

Published

on

By

Archaeologists have discovered the oldest known preserved wine, a 2,000-year-old white wine of Andalusian origin.

The origins of wine is debatable, with some sources citing the invention to China, or from Georgia, Iran, and Armenia. Wine was an integral part of the Roman diet and most major wine-producing regions of Western Europe were established during the Roman Imperial era.

The wine was found in a Roman era tomb in the Spanish town of Carmona. It was used for a funerary rite, where the wine was placed in a glass urn and used to immerse the cremated remains of one of the deceased.

“At first we were very surprised that liquid was preserved in one of the funerary urns,” said the City of Carmona’s municipal archaeologist, Juan Manuel Román. “After all, 2,000 years had passed, but the tomb’s conservation conditions were extraordinary and allowed the wine to maintain its natural state.”

Ancient wines absorbed into vessel walls or their residues can be identified using specific biomarkers. However, the example from Carmona is the first instance where the wine has been analysed while still in its liquid state.

The results of the study, published in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, applied high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to identify the polyphenols in the liquid, allowing it to be identified as white wine.

Identifying the origins of the wine was challenging due to the absence of surviving samples from the same period for comparison. However, the mineral salts in the liquid suggest that the wine may originate from the former province of Betis, particularly the Montilla-Moriles region.

A second urn contained the remains of a cremated woman but no traces of a liquid or wine. According to the paper authors: “The fact that the man’s skeletal remains were immersed in the wine is no coincidence. Women in ancient Rome were long prohibited from drinking wine. It was a man’s drink.”

Header Image Credit : Juan Manuel Román

Sources : Daniel Cosano, Juan Manuel Román, Dolores Esquivel, Fernando Lafont, José Rafael Ruiz Arrebola, “New archaeochemical insights into Roman wine from Baetica”, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, vol. 57, 2024, 104636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2024.104636

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Trending

Generated by Feedzy