Connect with us

Archaeology

“Julius Caesar” inscribed sling bullet found in Montilla

Published

on

A lead sling bullet inscribed with the name of Julius Caesar has been discovered in the countryside of Montilla, located in Andalusia, Spain.

The discovery is the first example of a sling bullet to bear Julius Caesar’s name abbreviated with CAES, along with a second inscription with the place name of IPSCA, a Roman city that stood on the border of what is now the territory of Baena.

The bullet was fired from a sling, a small hand-powered projectile weapon with a small cradle or pouch in the middle of two retention cords.

The sling’s origin may date as far back as the Upper Palaeolithic period, coinciding with the emergence of novel technologies such as the spear-thrower and the bow and arrow.

During antiquity, the sling became a common weapon used in Ancient Greece and the Roman period, with the Roman Army adopting slings to be used by skirmishers.

The late Roman writer Vegetius notes the use of slings in the De Re Militari, which states: “Recruits are to be taught the art of throwing stones both with the hand and sling. There is the greater reason for instructing all troops, without exception, in this exercise, as the sling cannot be reckoned any encumbrance, and often is of the greatest service, especially when they are obliged to engage in stony places, to defend a mountain or an eminence, or to repulse an enemy at the attack of a castle or city.”

It is possible that the sling bullet found in Montilla originates from the conflict between Caesar and the Optimates during the Second Hispanian campaign of Caesar’s Civil War.

At the time, Ipsca was an Iberian oppidum and later a Roman municipality located 12 miles from Montilla, along with the Roman municipium of Ulia only 8 miles north of where the sling bullet was found.

The discovery may also indicate the possible site of the Battle of Munda, the location of which has long been a subject of debate, with the environs of Montilla being one of the top candidates.

A study of the sling bullet has been published in the scientific journal Zephyrus.

Header Image Credit : STILEarte

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Archaeology

Researchers find that Żagań-Lutnia5 is an Iron Age stronghold

Published

on

By

Archaeologists have conducted a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of Żagań-Lutnia5, revealing that the monument is an Iron Age stronghold.

Żagań-Lutnia5 was first discovered in the 1960s near the town of Żagań in western Poland, with previous studies suggesting that the monument could be associated with the Białowieża group of the Lusatian urnfield culture.

The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300–500 BC) in most of what is now Poland. It formed part of the Urnfield systems found from eastern France, southern Germany and Austria to Hungary, and the Nordic Bronze Age in northwestern Germany and Scandinavia.

A recent study led by Dr. Arkadiusz Michalak on behalf of the Archaeological Museum of the Middle Oder River has revealed two parallel sequences of magnetic anomalies at Żagań-Lutnia5 that represent the remnants of earthen and wooden fortifications.

The course of the fortifications were recorded in the northern, western and southern parts of the study area, however, a study of the eastern section was limited due to a sewage collector built in the 1990’s.

Exploratory excavations found four cultural layers with remains of huts and hearths, in addition to a burnt layer from the last phase of occupation that suggests a period of conflict.

According to the researchers, the monument was likely built by the same people who constructed the stronghold in Wicin and a number of verified defensive settlements within the area of the Elbe, Nysa Łużycka and Odra.

As a result of the study, Żagań-Lutnia5 has been added to the catalogue of verified Early Iron Age strongholds located in today’s Lubusz Voivodeship.

Header Image Credit : Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments

Sources : Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments – Archaeological research at the site of Żagań-Lutnia5

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Archaeology

Rare copper dagger found in Polish forest

Published

on

By

A rare copper dagger from over 4,000-years-ago has been discovered in the forests near Korzenica, southeastern Poland.

Piotr Gorlach from the Historical and Exploration Association Grupa Jarosław made the discovery during a metal detector survey in Jarosław Forest.

Upon realising the significance of the find, Mr Gorlach contacted the Podkarpacie conservator of monuments in Przemyśl and the Orsetti House Museum.

The dagger dates from over 4,000 years ago, a period in which objects made from copper were extremely rare in the Central European Plain.

A preliminary study indicates that the dagger may originate from the Carpathian Basin or Ukrainian steppe, and predates the development of bronze metallurgy for the region.

This transition is traditionally known as the Copper Age and marked a gradual incorporation of copper while stone remained the primary resource utilised.

Dr. Elżbieta Sieradzka-Burghardt from the museum in Jarosław, said: “This is a period of enormous change in the main raw materials for the production of tools. Instead of flint tools commonly used in the Stone Age, more and more metal products appear heralding the transition to the next period – the Bronze Age.”

Daggers during this era were a universal attribute of warriors, however, being made from copper suggests that the owner held a high social status. This is further supported by its size measuring 10.5 cm in length, which for this period is actually very large when compared to other metal objects from the same era.

The dagger has already been added to the collection of the Orsetti House Museum in Jarosław.

Header Image Credit : Łukasz Śliwiński

Sources : PAP – A dagger from over 4,000 years ago found in the forest.

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Trending

Generated by Feedzy