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Archaeologists find remnants of Tewkesbury’s medieval past

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A team of archaeologists from Cotswold Archaeology have uncovered a medieval farmhouse at Cowfield Farm, located in Tewkesbury, England.

The site is located at a former 18th-century brick farmhouse which is being developed following a fire in 2004.

According to the researchers, the origins of Cowfield Farm lie in the 12th/13th centuries when a farmhouse occupied the site surrounded by a rectangular enclosure. The earliest documentary reference to Cowfield dates to 1535 when it was part of a freehold estate belonging to Tewkesbury Abbey.

To the south was a sheepcote: a long, narrow building for housing sheep, but documentary research carried out as part of the project suggests the main role of the farm was as a specialist cattle establishment known as a vaccary.

Vaccaries typically encompassed meadows, drier pasture, hayfields, and the home farm which would have included the farmhouse, a cowshed, and other buildings. During this period, cattle were primarily for dairying, but older animals and bullocks from Cowfield would have been driven to Tewkesbury to provide meat for the urban population and the abbey monks.

The original farmhouse was demolished, and a new one was built with stone foundations surrounded by a substantial rectangular moat measuring 65 metres by 35–55 metres across.

Very little of the new farmhouse survived, however, a large corner stone suggests it was a rectangular building divided by a central passage, with service rooms to one side and a hall and sleeping chamber to the other. North of the moat, a large aisled building built over the original farmhouse was probably a cowshed and may have included rooms for dairying.

Some of the finds uncovered include a ceramic dripping tray used for roasting meat, and a pilgrim badge depicting the archangel Michael defeating the Devil in the form of a dragon, possibly originating from Mont St Michel in France.

Header Image Credit : Cotsworld Archaeology

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Archaeology

Researchers find that Żagań-Lutnia5 is an Iron Age stronghold

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Archaeologists have conducted a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of Żagań-Lutnia5, revealing that the monument is an Iron Age stronghold.

Żagań-Lutnia5 was first discovered in the 1960s near the town of Żagań in western Poland, with previous studies suggesting that the monument could be associated with the Białowieża group of the Lusatian urnfield culture.

The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300–500 BC) in most of what is now Poland. It formed part of the Urnfield systems found from eastern France, southern Germany and Austria to Hungary, and the Nordic Bronze Age in northwestern Germany and Scandinavia.

A recent study led by Dr. Arkadiusz Michalak on behalf of the Archaeological Museum of the Middle Oder River has revealed two parallel sequences of magnetic anomalies at Żagań-Lutnia5 that represent the remnants of earthen and wooden fortifications.

The course of the fortifications were recorded in the northern, western and southern parts of the study area, however, a study of the eastern section was limited due to a sewage collector built in the 1990’s.

Exploratory excavations found four cultural layers with remains of huts and hearths, in addition to a burnt layer from the last phase of occupation that suggests a period of conflict.

According to the researchers, the monument was likely built by the same people who constructed the stronghold in Wicin and a number of verified defensive settlements within the area of the Elbe, Nysa Łużycka and Odra.

As a result of the study, Żagań-Lutnia5 has been added to the catalogue of verified Early Iron Age strongholds located in today’s Lubusz Voivodeship.

Header Image Credit : Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments

Sources : Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments – Archaeological research at the site of Żagań-Lutnia5

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Rare copper dagger found in Polish forest

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A rare copper dagger from over 4,000-years-ago has been discovered in the forests near Korzenica, southeastern Poland.

Piotr Gorlach from the Historical and Exploration Association Grupa Jarosław made the discovery during a metal detector survey in Jarosław Forest.

Upon realising the significance of the find, Mr Gorlach contacted the Podkarpacie conservator of monuments in Przemyśl and the Orsetti House Museum.

The dagger dates from over 4,000 years ago, a period in which objects made from copper were extremely rare in the Central European Plain.

A preliminary study indicates that the dagger may originate from the Carpathian Basin or Ukrainian steppe, and predates the development of bronze metallurgy for the region.

This transition is traditionally known as the Copper Age and marked a gradual incorporation of copper while stone remained the primary resource utilised.

Dr. Elżbieta Sieradzka-Burghardt from the museum in Jarosław, said: “This is a period of enormous change in the main raw materials for the production of tools. Instead of flint tools commonly used in the Stone Age, more and more metal products appear heralding the transition to the next period – the Bronze Age.”

Daggers during this era were a universal attribute of warriors, however, being made from copper suggests that the owner held a high social status. This is further supported by its size measuring 10.5 cm in length, which for this period is actually very large when compared to other metal objects from the same era.

The dagger has already been added to the collection of the Orsetti House Museum in Jarosław.

Header Image Credit : Łukasz Śliwiński

Sources : PAP – A dagger from over 4,000 years ago found in the forest.

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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