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Truncated conical tombs found in Chapultepec Forest

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Archaeologists from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) have uncovered 3,000-year-old truncated conical tombs on the edge of the Chapultepec Forest.

Chapultepec Forest is one of the largest city parks in Mexico City, centred on a natural rock formation called Chapultepec Hill. The Toltecs named the area “grasshopper hill”, which would later be named Chapoltepēc in Nahuatl, meaning “at the grasshopper hill”.

During the Classic Period, the region was inhabited by the Teotihuacan culture, with later evidence of the Tepanecas of Azcapotzalco and the Mexica (Aztecs).

When the Mexica took control of the Valley of Mexico, the hill was considered sacred and was used as a repository for the ashes of their rulers.

Image Credit : INAH

The hill would later be the location of one of the last major battles between the Mexica and the Spanish conquistadors, with the Spanish constructing the Chapultepec Castle in 1785 as a summer retreat for colonial viceroys.

Recent excavations in the vicinity of Constituciónntes Avenue uncovered 12 truncated conical tombs dating from 3,000-years-ago during the Preclassic period (1200-400 BC) and the Early Preclassic period (2500-1200 BC). Five of the tombs contained deposits of human remains, four of which are female and one is male, all of which are positioned in a flexed form.

Excavations also discovered funerary offerings consisting of deer antlers worked as tools, a concave-convex cup, a fragment of a slate disc, effigy vessels and female figurines.

According to the researchers: “All of this evidence accounts for the complexity of social practices and productive activities, such as agriculture, pottery and construction in the Preclassic, when many of the characteristic features of Mesoamerican societies that would remain in subsequent centuries.”

Header Image Credit : INAH

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Archaeology

Researchers find that Żagań-Lutnia5 is an Iron Age stronghold

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Archaeologists have conducted a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of Żagań-Lutnia5, revealing that the monument is an Iron Age stronghold.

Żagań-Lutnia5 was first discovered in the 1960s near the town of Żagań in western Poland, with previous studies suggesting that the monument could be associated with the Białowieża group of the Lusatian urnfield culture.

The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300–500 BC) in most of what is now Poland. It formed part of the Urnfield systems found from eastern France, southern Germany and Austria to Hungary, and the Nordic Bronze Age in northwestern Germany and Scandinavia.

A recent study led by Dr. Arkadiusz Michalak on behalf of the Archaeological Museum of the Middle Oder River has revealed two parallel sequences of magnetic anomalies at Żagań-Lutnia5 that represent the remnants of earthen and wooden fortifications.

The course of the fortifications were recorded in the northern, western and southern parts of the study area, however, a study of the eastern section was limited due to a sewage collector built in the 1990’s.

Exploratory excavations found four cultural layers with remains of huts and hearths, in addition to a burnt layer from the last phase of occupation that suggests a period of conflict.

According to the researchers, the monument was likely built by the same people who constructed the stronghold in Wicin and a number of verified defensive settlements within the area of the Elbe, Nysa Łużycka and Odra.

As a result of the study, Żagań-Lutnia5 has been added to the catalogue of verified Early Iron Age strongholds located in today’s Lubusz Voivodeship.

Header Image Credit : Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments

Sources : Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments – Archaeological research at the site of Żagań-Lutnia5

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Archaeology

Rare copper dagger found in Polish forest

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A rare copper dagger from over 4,000-years-ago has been discovered in the forests near Korzenica, southeastern Poland.

Piotr Gorlach from the Historical and Exploration Association Grupa Jarosław made the discovery during a metal detector survey in Jarosław Forest.

Upon realising the significance of the find, Mr Gorlach contacted the Podkarpacie conservator of monuments in Przemyśl and the Orsetti House Museum.

The dagger dates from over 4,000 years ago, a period in which objects made from copper were extremely rare in the Central European Plain.

A preliminary study indicates that the dagger may originate from the Carpathian Basin or Ukrainian steppe, and predates the development of bronze metallurgy for the region.

This transition is traditionally known as the Copper Age and marked a gradual incorporation of copper while stone remained the primary resource utilised.

Dr. Elżbieta Sieradzka-Burghardt from the museum in Jarosław, said: “This is a period of enormous change in the main raw materials for the production of tools. Instead of flint tools commonly used in the Stone Age, more and more metal products appear heralding the transition to the next period – the Bronze Age.”

Daggers during this era were a universal attribute of warriors, however, being made from copper suggests that the owner held a high social status. This is further supported by its size measuring 10.5 cm in length, which for this period is actually very large when compared to other metal objects from the same era.

The dagger has already been added to the collection of the Orsetti House Museum in Jarosław.

Header Image Credit : Łukasz Śliwiński

Sources : PAP – A dagger from over 4,000 years ago found in the forest.

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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