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Retreating ice patches provide evidence of ancient obsidian mining

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Archaeologists conducting surveys of retreating ice patches have found perishable artefacts associated with ancient mining activities.

The study, published in the Journal of Field Archaeology, reports that the researchers have found over 50 perishable artefacts near Goat Mountain and the Kitsu Plateau, located in northern British Columbia, Canada.

Among the artefacts are stitched containers made from birch bark, wooden walking staffs, intricately carved and beveled sticks, an atlatl dart foreshaft, and a boot crafted from stitched hide.

According to the researchers: “Most of the perishable artifacts were manufactured from wood, including birch bark containers, projectile shafts, and walking staffs. Of the pieces of wood found, most had evidence of being worked or used.”

Items fashioned from animal remains include a stitched hide boot and tools carved from antler and bone. Additionally, unaltered bones were discovered, possibly attributable to natural deposition processes.

Such finds normally perish after becoming exposed from the ice, however, the researchers examined satellite imagery, followed by surface inspections, to locate perishable artefact sites for recovery and controlled conservation.

Carbon dating of the artefacts indicate a wide variance between each of the ice patch sites. At site HiTq-13, the researchers found four perishable artefacts which indicate a date of between 3000–1500 years ago. In contrast, site HiTq-17 indicates a date of 6200–5300 years ago, while site HiTq-18 indicates a date of 6900–6750 cal bp.

Every perishable artefact site is amidst a landscape abundant with millions of obsidian nodules, flakes, cores, preforms, and various tools, suggesting that the perishable artefacts are associated with ancient mining activities. However, hunting activities were also evident in the area, demonstrated by the presence of an atlatl foreshaft, a wooden point, and a potential fragment of an atlatl board.

Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass that forms when lava expelled from a volcano rapidly cools. Obsidian is hard, brittle, and amorphous; it therefore fractures with sharp edges, making it valued by Stone Age cultures for tool and weapons manufacturing.

According to the paper authors: “The results of this study are unique in that it is extremely rare to find ancient perishable artifacts in association with alpine quarries. Finally, the vast obsidian quarries and the radiocarbon dates on the associated perishable objects provide evidence that obsidian mining has been practiced repeatedly in the Mt. Edziza area for multiple millennia.”

Journal of Field Archaeology

https://doi.org/10.1080/00934690.2023.2272098

Header Image Credit : Duncan McLaren

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Archaeology

Study indicates that Firth promontory could be an ancient crannog

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A study by students from the University of the Highlands and Islands has revealed that a promontory in the Loch of Wasdale in Firth, Orkney, could be the remains of an ancient crannog.

A crannog is a partially or entirely artificial island, typically built in lakes and estuarine waters of Scotland from the prehistoric period onward.

Crannogs were used as dwellings, taking advantage of the natural surroundings that may have served to provide a defensive purpose.

Despite significant variations in methodology, most crannogs on mainland Scotland were built by driving timber piles into the loch bed and filling the interior with peat, brush, stones, or timber to create a solid foundation.

In largely treeless regions like the Western Isles, these island dwellings utilised a diverse mix of natural, artificially enlarged, or entirely artificial islets.

The discovery was made by students from the UHI Archaeology Institute, who were conducting test-pitting on a promontory at the northern end of the Loch of Wasdale.

According to a press statement by UHI: “It appears as an islet on the 1882 Ordnance Survey map. Little is known about the site, but the fact the shoreside edges appear to show the remains of walling led to the suggestion it may be a crannog.”

In his Reminiscences of an Orkney Parish, John Firth (1838-1922) wrote that this islet was once home to a kirk: “During the Middle Ages several chapels existed in the district now known as the parish of Firth – one on the island in the Loch of Wasdale.”

The test-pitting revealed large quantities of cairn-like rubble, in addition to more structural remains or a stone surface, indicating that the entire promontory/islet is artificial.

Martin Carruthers, a lecturer at UHI, said: “A structure made up of some very large masonry seems to lurk at the heart of the cairn makeup. Constructing this ‘monument’ must have been a very substantial undertaking.”

“In terms of artefacts, apart from some later post-medieval glazed pottery, we recovered a single worked flint, probably a ‘thumbnail’ scraper, which is most likely later Neolithic in date,” added Carruthers.

Header Image Credit : Shutterstock

Sources : UHI

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Archaeologists identify the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II

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Archaeologists from Sorbonne University have identified the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II, otherwise known as Ramesses the Great.

Ramesses II was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty during the New Kingdom period.
His reign is often regarded as the most celebrated in Egypt’s history, marked by several major military campaigns and numerous monument construction projects.

Based on supporting historical accounts, most Egyptologists suggest that Ramesses II assumed the throne in 1279 BC and reigned until his death at the age of around 90 in 1212 or 1213 BC.

His remains were interred in a tomb complex (designated KV7) in the Valley of the Kings, located opposite the tomb of his sons (KV5), and near the tomb (KV8) of his son and successor, Merenptah.

During the reign of Ramesses III during the 20th Dynasty, the tomb of Ramesses II was looted by grave robbers. Ancient texts record that priests moved his remains to the tomb of Queen Ahmose Inhapy, and then to the tomb of the high priest Pinedjem II.

His final resting place was a tomb (designated TT320), located next to Deir el-Bahari, in the Theban Necropolis opposite Luxor. The tomb is a Royal Cache containing the mummified remains of more than 50 kings, queens, and other royal family members of the New Kingdom period.

The mummy of Ramesses II was discovered in TT320 during excavations in 1881. He was found placed in a simple wooden coffin, suggesting that this was meant as a temporary measure until a more permanent resting place could be determined.

A new study, published in the Revue d’Égyptologie, suggests that a fragment of a sarcophagus discovered in 2009 at Abydos was part of the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II.

The sarcophagus fragment was found in a Coptic monastery and has recently been re-examined by Egyptologist Frédéric Payraudeau from Sorbonne University.

According to the study author, the decoration and texts on the sarcophagus fragment indicate that it was first used by Ramesses II (evidenced by the cartouche of Ramesses II), and later reused by a high priest of the 21st Dynasty, Menkheperre (around 1000 BC) who likely had the sarcophagus transported to Abydos after KV7 was looted.

Header Image Credit : Sarcophagus fragment – Kevin Cahail

Sources : cnrs | Le sarcophage de Ramsès II remployé à Abydos – Published in the Revue d’Égyptologie.

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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