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Munich was densely populated during the Iron Age

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In a press announcement issued by the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation, archaeologists have uncovered evidence indicating that Munich, located in Bavaria, Germany, was densely populated during the Iron Age.

Excavations in preparation for the development of a residential estate have uncovered over 100 ancient dwellings that could house up to 500 inhabitants during the Iron Age.

The discovery was made in the Feldmoching district, where circular brown features and post holes revealed the imprint of structures in large concentrations. According to the researchers, the structures vary in size and floor plan, which were half-timbered wooden houses using clay as a filling material.

Over 2,800 finds have been discovered, as well as two groups of graves consisting of 9 burials that date from the late Iron Age between 450 to 15 BC.

The team also found evidence of Roman occupation, evidenced by Roman burials from the 3rd to 4th century AD. In one of the burials, the researchers found funerary offerings of a plate, an intact ceramic jug, and a drinking cup made of soapstone.

According to the press announcement, the area likely contained a scattered agricultural settlement, indicated by the discovery of part of a sickle in one of the Roman burials.

Previous excavations in the region have uncovered a Roman settlement north-east of Munich, which was excavated in the neighbourhood of Denning.

During the Roman period, the Via Julia, a major Roman highway, crossed the River Isar south of Munich, and connected the colony of Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg) with the Municipium Claudium Juvavum (Salzburg).

Apart from scattered settlements by the Baiuvarii during the 6th century AD, major settlement of the Munich area wouldn’t take place until the founding of the town of Munich in 1158 during the Medieval period.

Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation

Header Image Credit : Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation

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Archaeology

Revolutionary war barracks discovered at Colonial Williamsburg

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Archaeologists excavating at Colonial Williamsburg have discovered a barracks for soldiers of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence.

Colonial Williamsburg is a living-history museum that forms part of the historic district in the city of Williamsburg, Virginia.

Williamsburg was the capital of the Virginia colony from 1699 until 1779, founded by English settlers during the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622–1632).

Tensions with England mounted over fundamental civil and economic rights for the colonists, resulting in the American Revolution and the American War of Independence.

Image Credit : Colonial Williamsburg

Archaeologists excavating next to the museum’s visitor’s centre uncovered foundations of a barracks that could accommodate up to 2,000 soldiers from the Continental Army and up to 100 horses.

“We have horseshoes,” said Jack Gary, Colonial Williamsburg executive director of archaeology. “We also have this object here which is a snaffle bit, so it’s part of a horse bit that goes in the mouth to control the horse. And this object here is part of a curry comb for brushing down the horse’s coat.”

Excavations have so far unearthed only a small part of the complex, but experts suggest that it covered roughly three to four acres.

The barracks were known from Eighteenth-century maps and other historical documents, but until now, the exact location of where it existed within the colony interior was unknown.

According to the historical sources, the barracks were built between 1776 and 1777, and were later destroyed by fire in 1781 by soldiers of the British Army under the command of General Cornwallis.

Excavations also uncovered mid-1700 chimney bases, ceramics, gun flint, coins, musket balls, military buckles, and items of decorative jewellery worn by high-ranking officers as cufflinks.

An interesting discovery are examples of lead shot with indications of tooth-marks, suggesting that the soldiers chewed on the lead shot because it tasted sweet.

Header Image Credit : Colonial Williamsburg

Sources : Colonial Williamsburg

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Pleistocene hunter-gatherers settled in Cyprus thousands of years earlier than previously thought

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Archaeologists have found that Pleistocene hunter-gatherers settled in Cyprus thousands of years earlier than previously thought.

An analysis of the oldest archaeological sites on the island suggests that the first human occupation occurred between 14,257 and 13,182 years ago.

This analysis, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, used archaeological data, climate estimates, and demographic modelling.

The demographic modelling indicates that these early groups consisted of hundreds to thousands of people, who arrived in two to three main migration events over a period of only 100 years. Within just a few centuries, 11 generations – the population of Cypris had expanded to up 4,000 to 5000 inhabitants.

According to the study authors, these findings refute previous studies that suggested Mediterranean islands would have been unreachable and inhospitable for Pleistocene hunter-gatherer societies. “This settlement pattern implies organised planning and the use of advanced watercraft,” says Professor Bradshaw.

The climate estimates suggest that these early settlers arrived at a time during an increase in temperature and precipitation, also enabling an increase in environmental productivity that could sustain large hunter-gather populations.

Dr Moutsiou, said: “It has been argued that human dispersal to and settlement of Cyprus and other eastern Mediterranean islands is attributed to demographic pressures on the mainland after abrupt climatic change saw coastal areas inundated by post-glacial sea-level rise, forcing farming populations to move to new areas out of necessity rather than choice.”

Our research, based on more archaeological evidence and advanced modelling techniques, changes that”, adds Dr Moutsiou.

The research – “Demographic models predict end-Pleistocene arrival and rapid expansion of pre-agropastoralist humans in Cyprus” by Corey Bradshaw, Christian Reepmeyer, Frédérik Saltré, Athos Agapiou, Vasiliki Kassianidou, Stella Demesticha, Zomenia Zomeni, Miltiadis Polidorou and Theodora Moutsiou – has been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

Header Image Credit : Michalakis Christoforou

Sources : Demographic models predict end-Pleistocene arrival and rapid expansion of pre-agropastoralist humans in Cyprus. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2318293121

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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