In a pioneering study, scientists have used synchrotron techniques to
shed light on one of the most significant events in Earth’s history,
the Great Oxidation Event. This event, which occurred about 2.4 billion
years ago, was a turning point in the composition of our planet’s
atmosphere, which ultimately determined the development of complex life
forms and led to the transformation of Earth’s ecosystems.
Understanding plate tectonics and the Earth’s chemical composition
Plate tectonics plays a critical role in the cycling and exchange of
elements between the Earth’s surface, atmosphere, and mantle. Mountains
undergo weathering and erosion through interaction with water and the
atmosphere and break down to become sedimentary rocks. These sediments
are then partially returned to the mantle by subduction processes as one
tectonic plate dips beneath another. The formation of magmas in the
mantle above subduction zones provides a unique opportunity to
investigate how the atmosphere may have influenced the mantle by
assimilating materials from subducted sediments and provides valuable
insights into this complex geologic relationship.
Apatite inclusions in zircon crystals: Unlocking the secrets
To unravel the mysteries of the Great Oxidation Event, scientists
have turned their attention to apatite inclusions in zircon crystals
found in ancient magmas. These inclusions represent a window into the
past, providing valuable information about the redox state of the
environment during this critical period. Studying these inclusions using
synchrotron techniques at ESRF – Extremely Brilliant Source – allowed
researchers to analyze the valence characterization of sulfur and gain
insight into the atmospheric conditions that influenced the state of the
Overcoming challenges with innovative techniques
Studying the interaction between Earth’s atmosphere and mantle is not
an easy task, especially given the rapid changes that occurred during
the early stages of Earth’s development. However, a team led by the
University of Montpellier and the University of Portsmouth, in
collaboration with ESRF, has developed a method to overcome these
difficulties. By studying apatite inclusions in zircon crystals, they
were able to obtain valuable information about redox conditions during
the Great Oxidation Event.
Hugo Moreira, CNRS postdoctoral fellow at the University of
Montpellier and first author of the paper, explains the significance of
the findings, “Apatite is an indirect indicator of redox conditions.
When it grows under reduced conditions, its sulfur signature differs
from that crystallized under oxidized conditions. Analyzing the valence
composition of sulfur in apatite inclusions allows us to understand the
changing redox state of magmas and the influence of atmospherically
altered precipitation percolating into the mantle.”
Implications of the study
The results of this study have far-reaching implications for our
understanding of Earth history and the development of life on our
planet. By uncovering crucial information about the Great Oxidation
Event, scientists will be able to piece together the puzzle of how
oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere and how it influenced the evolution
of complex multicellular life forms. This study emphasizes the
importance of interdisciplinary research and innovative methods in
unlocking the mysteries of our planet’s past.
– “Apatite is an indirect indicator of redox conditions. When it
grows under reduced conditions, its sulfur signature is different from
that which crystallizes under oxidized conditions.” – Hugo Moreira, CNRS
postdoctoral fellow at the University of Montpellier.
Former US Air Force fighter pilot: UFOs use Star Trek-style warp drive
A former US Air Force fighter pilot asserts that he has deciphered
the method behind the extraordinary maneuvers of UFOs, reports dailystar.co.uk.
the past two decades, numerous military encounters with these enigmatic
crafts have been reported, prompting a significant investigation by the
One of the most renowned sightings occurred during the
USS Nimitz encounter, where fighter pilots witnessed a UFO descending
from 28,000 feet to just above sea level in less than a second.
astonishing movement would imply that the craft reached a staggering
speed of 19,000 miles per hour, a velocity that would be fatal to any
to Chris Lehto, a former USAF pilot, the craft exhibits two key
characteristics: it moves without inertia, essentially lacking weight,
and it accelerates at an incredibly rapid pace without affecting its
believes that the explanation lies within a technology that seems
straight out of science fiction. He proposes that the answer to the UFO
enigma lies in the Alcubierre Drive, a theoretical interstellar engine
conceptualized by Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre in 1994.
Alcubierre Drive employs a form of “space warp” technology, reminiscent
of what has been depicted in episodes of Star Trek. By bending space, a
craft inside a “warp bubble” could potentially travel at or even
surpass the speed of light without violating the known laws of physics.
the Alcubierre Drive remains a hypothetical concept with challenges to
overcome, Chris notes that the required energy is no longer believed to
be unattainably large.
filed with the US patent office outline the potential workings of the
drive, as well as another groundbreaking technology theorized by
American aerospace engineer Salvatore Pais.
Pais suggests that
high-powered rotating magnets could theoretically eliminate an object’s
inertia, and he has filed a patent for a starship based on this
However, Chris maintains skepticism regarding Pais’
theory. He explains that while Pais’s patent applications for the US
Navy attracted attention for their potential energy-related
applications, doubts have been raised about their feasibility. There is
speculation that they may be scams, pseudoscience, or disinformation
intended to mislead adversaries of the United States.
rival theories propose that the “Tic Tac” UFO is a classified Pentagon
project testing similar advanced technologies discussed by Chris.
A Mysterious Earth-Like Planet Has Just Appeared in Our Solar System, Scientists Say
Scientists say they have found evidence of a new Earth-like
planet that has suddenly appeared in our Solar System and is orbiting
Physicists, including those from the National Astronomical Observatory
of Japan, said the planet is likely to be the mysterious ‘Planet Nine’
that was hypothesised to exist in the far outer edges of the Solar
Several studies in the past have suggested there is likely an
undiscovered planet beyond the Kuiper Belt – a stellar disk of materials
such as asteroids, space rocks, comets around the Sun in the outer
Solar System past the orbit of Neptune.
Independent.co.uk reports: In the new research, published recently in The Astronomical Journal, scientists
found that some of the objects in the Kuiper Belt behave in a way
indicative of the presence of a small planet among them.
One such object, they said, is about 500 astronomical units (AU) from
the Sun, where 1 AU is the distance between the Sun and the Earth.
In comparison Neptune is at a distance of 30 AUs from the Sun.
Some of these were also found to have “odd” orbits suggesting they
are being pull by the gravity of a cosmic entity larger than those that
typically influence such objects.
Computer simulations run by the scientists indicate that the most
likely explanation for the observations was another hidden planet in the
“We predict the existence of an Earth-like planet,” researchers wrote in the study.
“It is plausible that a primordial planetary body could survive in
the distant Kuiper Belt as a Kuiper Belt planet (KBP), as many such
bodies existed in the early solar system,” they added.
If such a planet exists, researchers say it would have a mass about
1.5 to 3 times that of Earth with an inclination of about 30 degrees.
They say the theorised planet’s orbit would likely place it between 250 and 500 AU from the Sun.
Researchers say the discovery of such a planet close to the Kuiper
Belt can unravel new constraints on planet formation and evolution.
“In conclusion, the results of the KBP scenario support the existence
of a yet-undiscovered planet in the far outer solar system,” scientists
Ghosts1 year ago
Zozo: The Ouija Board Demon
Space12 months ago
Scientists claim to have found the answer what existed before the Universe
Archaeology7 months ago
New discoveries at Ekʼ Balam during conservation works
Ghosts1 year ago
Old Coot of Mount Greylock
Ghosts1 year ago
Jumbee: Demons of the Caribbean