Connect with us

Archaeology

Archaeologists conduct project to conserve Costa Rica’s stone spheres

Published

on

A team from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), and the National School of Conservation, Restoration and Museography (ENCRyM), have undertaken a project to conserve Costa Rica’s stone spheres.

Over 300 stone Petrospheres, often referred to as the Diquís Spheres, have been found on the small island of Isla del Caño and the Diquís Delta in Costa Rica.

The spheres are attributed to the now extinct Diquís culture, a people that first emerged in the Valley of the Rio Grande de Térraba during the Synancra period around 1,500 to 300 BC.

Between AD 800 to 1,500, the culture reached its apex of cultural development – with Diquís artisans creating elaborate ceramic, bone, and gold objects, and sculpturing stone spheres that were placed in important zones and places of alignments in public plazas.

The Diquís Spheres vary in size, spanning from a few centimetres to over 2 meters in diameter. The spheres are predominantly crafted from gabbro, a phaneritic mafic intrusive igneous rock resembling basalt, but there are also instances where limestone and sandstone are used.

The process of sculpting these spheres involved hammering boulders into a rough spherical shape using denser rocks, then meticulously polishing using sand to achieve a smooth finish.

According to the researchers: “The importance of these spheres constitutes elements of identity for many indigenous communities in Costa Rica, and are the only cultural asset that the country has inscribed on the World Heritage List of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco).”

Based on studies carried out on the largest stone spheres, experts from the ENCRyM and the National Museum of Costa Rica have investigated the materiality of these cultural assets to optimise their conservation treatments, assess the cultural significance of the sites, and to protect the cultural heritage for future generations.

INAH

Header Image Credit : Shutterstock

Continue Reading

Archaeology

Excavation of medieval shipbuilders reveals a Roman head of Mercury

Published

on

By

Excavations of a medieval shipbuilders has led to the discovery of a Roman settlement and a Roman head of Mercury.

The discovery was made at Smallhythe Place, a late 15th or early 16th century property managed by the National Trust near Tenterden in Kent, England.

Prior to the decline of the port and shipyard at Smallhythe during the 16th century, the local community played a crucial role in the shipbuilding industry, crafting vessels for notable figures, including members of royalty.

As part of a project funded by several UK institutions, over 60 volunteers from the National Trust participated in the excavation, along with professional archaeologists, students, and members of the Hastings Area Archaeological Research Group.

The excavation has revealed traces of a Roman settlement that was occupied between the 1st and 3rd centuries, including an incredibly rare figurine made of pipeclay that depicts the god, Mercury.

Mercury was a major god in the Roman pantheon and was associated with financial gain, commerce, eloquence, messages, communication (including divination), travellers, boundaries, luck, trickery, and thieves. He also served as the guide of souls to the underworld and was the messenger of the gods.

According to a press announcement by the National Trust: “This complete figurine probably would have depicted Mercury standing, either draped with a chlamys (a short cloak), or naked, holding a caduceus (a staff with two intertwined snakes).”

The team also unearthed thousands of artefacts, providing evidence of the evolution of Smallhythe Place from a Georgian farm to a midden dump, a shipbuilding site, and a brickworks.

The National Trust said: “To support our investigations, we received grants from the National Trust’s Inclusive Archaeology, Robert Kiln and the Roman Research Funds and from the Royal Archaeological Institute. During 2023, our project has received funding from the Society of Antiquaries and the William and Edith Oldham Charitable Trust.”

Header Image Credit : James Dobson

Sources : National Trust – Exploring Smallhythe Place: Archaeological Investigations by the River Rother

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Archaeology

Researchers find that Żagań-Lutnia5 is an Iron Age stronghold

Published

on

By

Archaeologists have conducted a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of Żagań-Lutnia5, revealing that the monument is an Iron Age stronghold.

Żagań-Lutnia5 was first discovered in the 1960s near the town of Żagań in western Poland, with previous studies suggesting that the monument could be associated with the Białowieża group of the Lusatian urnfield culture.

The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300–500 BC) in most of what is now Poland. It formed part of the Urnfield systems found from eastern France, southern Germany and Austria to Hungary, and the Nordic Bronze Age in northwestern Germany and Scandinavia.

A recent study led by Dr. Arkadiusz Michalak on behalf of the Archaeological Museum of the Middle Oder River has revealed two parallel sequences of magnetic anomalies at Żagań-Lutnia5 that represent the remnants of earthen and wooden fortifications.

The course of the fortifications were recorded in the northern, western and southern parts of the study area, however, a study of the eastern section was limited due to a sewage collector built in the 1990’s.

Exploratory excavations found four cultural layers with remains of huts and hearths, in addition to a burnt layer from the last phase of occupation that suggests a period of conflict.

According to the researchers, the monument was likely built by the same people who constructed the stronghold in Wicin and a number of verified defensive settlements within the area of the Elbe, Nysa Łużycka and Odra.

As a result of the study, Żagań-Lutnia5 has been added to the catalogue of verified Early Iron Age strongholds located in today’s Lubusz Voivodeship.

Header Image Credit : Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments

Sources : Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments – Archaeological research at the site of Żagań-Lutnia5

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

Continue Reading

Trending

Generated by Feedzy