A bright red waterfall isn’t something you’d expect to see on the icy
landscape of Antarctica, but that’s exactly what’s pouring out from the
foot of Taylor Glacier.
A team of scientists now claims to have solved the long-standing mystery behind the crimson waters of Antarctica’s Blood Falls.
bizarre and apparently grisly sight was first discovered in 1911 by
geologist Thomas Griffith Taylor, who attributed it to red algae.
It was only half a century later that the crimson color was identified
as being caused by iron salts. Most intriguingly, the water starts off
clear but turns red soon after it emerges from the ice, as the iron
oxidizes on exposure to the air for the first time in millennia.
Now a new study
has examined samples of the water and found that the iron appears in an
unexpected form. It’s not technically a mineral – instead it takes the
form of nanospheres, 100 times smaller than human red blood cells.
soon as I looked at the microscope images, I noticed that there were
these little nanospheres and they were iron-rich, and they have lots of
different elements in them besides iron – silicon, calcium, aluminum,
sodium – and they all varied,” said Ken Livi, an author of the study.
“In order to be a mineral, atoms must be arranged in a very specific,
crystalline, structure. These nanospheres aren’t crystalline, so the
methods previously used to examine the solids did not detect them.”
find has implications beyond Antarctica and even beyond Earth. Just a
few years ago, scientists managed to trace the water back to its source –
an extremely salty subglacial lake under high pressure, with no light
or oxygen, and a microbial ecosystem that’s remained isolated for
millions of years.
could exist on other planets under similarly inhospitable conditions,
but we might not be sending the right kind of equipment up to spot it.
“Our work has revealed that the analysis conducted by rover vehicles
is incomplete in determining the true nature of environmental materials
on planet surfaces,” said Livi.
“This is especially true for
colder planets like Mars, where the materials formed may be nanosized
and non-crystalline. Consequently, our methods for identifying these
materials are inadequate. To truly understand the nature of rocky
planets’ surfaces, a transmission electron microscope would be
necessary, but it is currently not feasible to place one on Mars.”
CNN Anchor Claims Dangerous Filthy Slums in America Are ‘Vibrant Expressions of Democracy’
CNN host Fareed Zakaria aired an astonishing rant this past
weekend arguing that major US cities are filthy and dangerous because of
“democracy,” and that makes them more “vibrant.”
Zakaria was attempting to provide a counter argument to Tucker
Carlson’s recent report that Russia’s subways are nicer than America’s.
Modernity.news reports: “American cities are expressions of democracy,” Zakaria asserted, claiming they are “places where people have to negotiate differences and find ways to live together, that makes them messier and dirtier and sometimes chaotic.”
He then argued “perhaps that is what has made these cities so vibrant and innovative, and why they have been at the forefront in making America the country that leads the world in economics, technology, culture and power.”
Is rampant crime, homelessness, and drug use part of said vibrancy?
Fact check. American cities were not shit holes when the country emerged as the envy of the world.
Zakaria continued, “Carlson speaks enviously of cities like Tokyo, Singapore, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, and they are indeed wonderful in their own distinctive ways. But what’s striking about all of them is that they are somewhat tame and subdued. The product of authoritarian governments or conformist culture, or both. American cities are different.”
He appears to be seriously claiming that you cannot have a clean and safe city without some kind of evil dictatorship overseeing it.
Zakaria continued “Carlson put forward a bizarre hodgepodge of assertions he thought the architecture, food and service in Moscow was better than in any American city. Really? Moscow?”
“Outside of a small historic center, it is filled with drab Soviet era concrete buildings. And while the food in Moscow can be quite good…Better than New York or San Francisco? You need to get out more” Zakaria concluded.
Has he been to San Francisco lately?
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