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Evidence of Roman marching camp found in Paderborn

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Archaeologists have found evidence of a Roman marching camp in Paderborn on the eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Excavations have been conducted by the Regional Association of Westphalia-Lippe (LWL) prior to the construction of a new educational campus at the St. Johannisstift Hospital.

Archaeologists have found fragments of several different Roman wine amphorae, in additional to two field ovens from over 2,000-years-ago.

Paderborn was founded as a bishopric by Charlemagne in AD 795. According to the researchers, the discovery is the first sign of Roman military activity found in the Paderborn area.

The camp would have been constructed on a raised flat hill at the St. Johannisstift Hospital site, likely resembling other typical marching camps with of a polygonal area surrounded by an earth wall with a V-shaped ditch in front.

“Amphora finds like those found in Paderborn have so far only come to light in military camps such as Haltern am See or Bergkamen-Oberaden. The fact that amphorae have now been found in the city of Paderborn is outstanding,” says Prof. Dr. Michael M, Director of LWL Archaeology for Westphalia.

Image Credit : LWL

The field ovens were built by constructing a pit up to 60-80 cm’s deep in the shape of a figure of eight. Generally, field ovens were only building in temporary marching camps, used for baking bread in between marches during campaigns.

Various charcoal samples were taken from the ovens and sent to the University of Kiel for Carbon-14 dating. The results places the ovens during the time of the Augustan campaigns in Germania around 12 BC. The campaigns were a series of conflicts between the Germanic tribes and the Roman Empire over expanding territory.

LWL

Header Image Credit : EggensteinExca/ R. Sweet

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Archaeology

Excavations uncover traces of Kraków Fortress

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A team of archaeologists conducting archaeological works at the S52 construction site have uncovered traces of the Kraków Fortress in the Polish city of Kraków.

S52 is a Polish highway being constructed in the Silesian and Lesser Poland voivodeships, which upon completion will connect the border of the Czech Republic in Cieszyn with Kraków.

Kraków Fortress refers to a series of Austro-Hungarian fortifications constructed during the 19th century. The fortress included the 18th century Kościuszko Insurrection fortifications, the medieval Wawel Castle, and the Kraków city walls. Of the over 50 post-Austrian forts in Krakow, 44 structures have been preserved in their entirety or with minor changes.

Excavations in the area of ​​the northern bypass of Krakow have revealed the remains of earthen structures related to the network of military units being established around the city, whose task was to turn Krakow into a modern border fortress.

The team also uncovered traces of earth embankments and moats, as well as the infrastructure for draining rainwater from the infantry entrenchment area and a wooden shelter from a dugout measuring 25 by 7.5 metres.

A press statement by the Republic of Poland, said: “During the research, objects related to the everyday life of soldiers were discovered. These include a tin enameled mug with a signature on the bottom depicting a double-headed imperial eagle with the inscription Austria and the initials H&C 1/2.”

“The preserved marking allowed us to determine that the mug is a product of the Haardt & Co. factory located in Knittelfeld, Austria. Enamellierwerke und Metallwarenfabriken AG. Founded in 1873 by Friedrich Wilhelm Haardt, the factory produced embossed enamelled dishes, including orders for the then Austrian army.”

Header Image Credit : Republic of Poland

Sources : Republic of Poland

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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Archaeology

Excavations at Sheffield Castle uncover city’s industrial heritage

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A team of archaeologists from Wessex Archaeology have uncovered the industrial heritage of Sheffield during excavations at Sheffield Castle.

Sheffield Castle was constructed following the Norman Conquest of England (1066) at the confluence of the River Sheaf and the River Don.

Throughout April and May of 2024, Wessex Archaeology is conducting a series of excavations to uncover and preserve the foundations of the circular towers of the castle’s gatehouse, and explore the destruction deposits from the razing of the original motte and bailey castle by John D’Eyvill in the 13th century.

The team will also be investigating areas never before excavated, finally reaching the remains of the 11th to 17th-century castle where Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned.

Following the removal of the modern concrete foundations and backfill deposits, excavations have already uncovered traces of structures from the 19th century.

The team found remnants of a vaulted ceiling, which upon further inspection has been revealed to be a crucible furnace, a type of foundry furnace used for melting and casting metals such as steel, in addition to ‘rake out’ pits below the furnace.

A press statement by Wessex Archaeology, “This cellar would have been a hot, unpleasant place when the crucible furnaces above were working. Reaching temperatures of 1200 degrees centigrade, the firing process was hot and efficient, but it also produced lots of ash which needed to be cleared. The ash would fall into the ‘rake out’ pits below, where a worker, perhaps a young boy, had the back-breaking job of removing it.”

Throughout April and May 2024, the Sheffield community is invited to experience and discover the site’s archaeology firsthand, through open days and opportunities to participate in the excavation for a day. Attendance is FREE with booking required. For more information and to book, visit www.wessexarch.co.uk/events

Header Image Credit : Wessex Archaeology

Sources : Wessex Archaeology

This content was originally published on www.heritagedaily.com – © 2023 – HeritageDaily

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