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Scientists from the Netherlands argue that the event horizon is not necessary for the process of black hole evaporation



Black holes are one of the most mysterious phenomena in the Universe.
For decades, physicists have tried to understand how they work and how
they interact with their environment. Stephen Hawking’s theory,
formulated in 1974, represents one of the most famous ideas about black

However, recent research by Radbor University in the Netherlands has
shown that Hawking’s theory is somewhat inadequate. In their paper,
published in the arXiv preprint repository, the scientists argue that a
black hole’s event horizon is not necessary for the evaporation process.

According to Hawking, black holes evaporate as a result of the fact
that near their event horizon, pairs of virtual particles and
antiparticles are spontaneously born. One of the particles may fly away,
forming radiation, while the other falls beyond the event horizon,
causing the pair to cease to be virtual. According to the law of
conservation of mass, radiation causes the black hole to lose mass,
which leads to its evaporation.

However, new research has shown that the event horizon is not as
important in this process as previously thought. Gravity and the
curvature of spacetime itself also produce Hawking radiation, which
causes all sufficiently massive objects in the universe to evaporate.

This means that any large objects, such as the remnants of evolved
stars, have enough mass to create the curvature of spacetime and also
evaporate. This changes our view of the distant future of the Universe.

However, scientists point out that this phenomenon should not give
rise to the information paradox, according to which information about
the state of the particles within a cosmic object is lost when it
evaporates. Further theoretical studies regarding the entropy of the
object and the thermal nature of the radiation are needed to prove the
preservation of information.

Earlier it has been shown that information in black holes actually
should not be lost, but so far no explanation has been offered as to how
information can leave a black hole at evaporation.

Thus, the new research confirms Hawking’s theory that black holes
disappear through evaporation, but also indicates that the event horizon
is not as important in this process as previously thought. This opens
up new possibilities for studying this mysterious phenomenon and
understanding its influence on the universe.

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Former US Air Force fighter pilot: UFOs use Star Trek-style warp drive




A former US Air Force fighter pilot asserts that he has deciphered
the method behind the extraordinary maneuvers of UFOs, reports

the past two decades, numerous military encounters with these enigmatic
crafts have been reported, prompting a significant investigation by the

One of the most renowned sightings occurred during the
USS Nimitz encounter, where fighter pilots witnessed a UFO descending
from 28,000 feet to just above sea level in less than a second.

astonishing movement would imply that the craft reached a staggering
speed of 19,000 miles per hour, a velocity that would be fatal to any
human pilot.

to Chris Lehto, a former USAF pilot, the craft exhibits two key
characteristics: it moves without inertia, essentially lacking weight,
and it accelerates at an incredibly rapid pace without affecting its

Image: NATO Allied Air Command/Facebook

believes that the explanation lies within a technology that seems
straight out of science fiction. He proposes that the answer to the UFO
enigma lies in the Alcubierre Drive, a theoretical interstellar engine
conceptualized by Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre in 1994.

Alcubierre Drive employs a form of “space warp” technology, reminiscent
of what has been depicted in episodes of Star Trek. By bending space, a
craft inside a “warp bubble” could potentially travel at or even
surpass the speed of light without violating the known laws of physics.

the Alcubierre Drive remains a hypothetical concept with challenges to
overcome, Chris notes that the required energy is no longer believed to
be unattainably large.

filed with the US patent office outline the potential workings of the
drive, as well as another groundbreaking technology theorized by
American aerospace engineer Salvatore Pais.

Pais suggests that
high-powered rotating magnets could theoretically eliminate an object’s
inertia, and he has filed a patent for a starship based on this

However, Chris maintains skepticism regarding Pais’
theory. He explains that while Pais’s patent applications for the US
Navy attracted attention for their potential energy-related
applications, doubts have been raised about their feasibility. There is
speculation that they may be scams, pseudoscience, or disinformation
intended to mislead adversaries of the United States.

rival theories propose that the “Tic Tac” UFO is a classified Pentagon
project testing similar advanced technologies discussed by Chris.

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A Mysterious Earth-Like Planet Has Just Appeared in Our Solar System, Scientists Say




Scientists say they have found evidence of a new Earth-like
planet that has suddenly appeared in our Solar System and is orbiting
the Sun.

Physicists, including those from the National Astronomical Observatory
of Japan, said the planet is likely to be the mysterious ‘Planet Nine’
that was hypothesised to exist in the far outer edges of the Solar

Several studies in the past have suggested there is likely an
undiscovered planet beyond the Kuiper Belt – a stellar disk of materials
such as asteroids, space rocks, comets around the Sun in the outer
Solar System past the orbit of Neptune. reports: In the new research, published recently in The Astronomical Journal, scientists
found that some of the objects in the Kuiper Belt behave in a way
indicative of the presence of a small planet among them.

One such object, they said, is about 500 astronomical units (AU) from
the Sun, where 1 AU is the distance between the Sun and the Earth.

In comparison Neptune is at a distance of 30 AUs from the Sun.

Some of these were also found to have “odd” orbits suggesting they
are being pull by the gravity of a cosmic entity larger than those that
typically influence such objects.

Computer simulations run by the scientists indicate that the most
likely explanation for the observations was another hidden planet in the
Kuiper Belt.

“We predict the existence of an Earth-like planet,” researchers wrote in the study.

“It is plausible that a primordial planetary body could survive in
the distant Kuiper Belt as a Kuiper Belt planet (KBP), as many such
bodies existed in the early solar system,” they added.

If such a planet exists, researchers say it would have a mass about
1.5 to 3 times that of Earth with an inclination of about 30 degrees.

They say the theorised planet’s orbit would likely place it between 250 and 500 AU from the Sun.

Researchers say the discovery of such a planet close to the Kuiper
Belt can unravel new constraints on planet formation and evolution.

“In conclusion, the results of the KBP scenario support the existence
of a yet-undiscovered planet in the far outer solar system,” scientists

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