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Saturn’s moon Enceladus declared habitable



Pictures taken by the automatic apparatus “Cassini”, cruising in the vicinity of Saturn, and subsequent studies led to the conclusion that under the ice of Enceladus, a satellite of the giant planet, an ocean is hidden. Water from it beats with powerful fountains directly into space.

The jets were first noticed in 2005, and in 2015 it was possible to take a sample from them. This was done by Cassini, which flew only a few tens of kilometers from the gushing surface.

For a long time it was not clear what these bursts were. NASA specialists were the first to clarify. The collected data testified: jets of water. And salty. They are not formed when ice turns into steam. Their source is liquid water.

From the subglacial ocean of Enceladus, jets of water shoot through cracks in the ice.

Subsequently, it was found that this water contains molecular hydrogen – about one percent, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. And these “impurities” indicate that hydrothermal springs work at the bottom of the ocean of Enceladus and create conditions suitable for the life of certain organisms – at least bacteria and maybe shellfish.

Suspicions that Enceladus may be habitable have recently been reinforced by specialists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). As reported in the journal Science Advances.

Additional analysis and computer simulations showed that areas of more salty water are at the poles of Enceladus – under a thicker layer of ice. At the equator, the ice is thinner and the water less salty.

On average, the saturation of water in the ocean of the satellite with salt reaches about 30 grams per liter. This should be conducive to life and the appearance of some inhabitants. For comparison, the salinity of the earth’s – inhabited – oceans is 35 grams of salt per liter.

Earth, Moon and Enceladus

The probable existence of geothermal sources at the bottom of the Enceladus ocean was also indicated by the data collected by Cassini. Under the ice of the satellite there are powerful sources of heat. As if there are 20 thermal power plants with a total capacity of 15.8 ± 3.1 gigawatts (1 gigawatt = 1000 megawatts).

“We assumed that the level of heat flow from the bowels of Enceladus is about 1.1 gigawatts, maximum – 5.8, but it turned out to be much higher,” said Carly Howett, research leader from the Southwest Research Institute (Southwest Research Institute in Boulder).

Scientists still cannot explain what drives heat sources so powerfully.

Of course, the interior of Enceladus is heated by gravitational interaction with Saturn – the tidal force. A little – adds radiation. But the performance of both is not enough to generate heat as powerfully as it is observed.

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‘October Surprise’: Russia To Launch Nukes in Space




The ‘national security threat’ announced on Wednesday is
about Russia planning to launch nuclear weapons in space, causing some
to speculate whether it’s really an election year ploy.

The panic began when House Intelligence Committee Chair Mike Turner
(R-Ohio) asked President Biden to declassify information about a
“serious national security threat”. reports: The weapon would reportedly be designed to be used to take out satellites.

Speaker Mike Johnson (R-La.) responded by telling reporters he wanted “to assure the American people, there is no need for public alarm.”

The big, scary threat is serious business and involves a space-based nuke controlled by evil dictator Putin, but it’s also “not an immediate crisis,” according to what three members of the U.S. House Intelligence Committee have told Politico.

Okay, then. Just for election season, is it?

Zero Hedge reports: “So, the question is – was this:

a) a distraction from Biden’s broken brain, or

2) a last desperate attempt to get more funding for anything-but-the-US-border, or

iii) a path to pitching Putin as the uber-bad-guy again after his interview with Tucker Carlson.”

Just by coincidence, Mike Turner recently returned from Ukraine having lobbied for billions more in weapons and aid for Zelensky’s government.

Some questioned the timing, suggesting it might all be a deep state plot to keep American voters afraid when they hit the ballot box.

Speculation will now rage as to whether this is “the event,” real or imagined, that billionaires and elitists the world over have been building underground survival bunkers in preparation for.

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Earth has built-in protection from asteroids




Asteroids are not just wandering space rocks, but a potential threat
to Earth. But what if the Earth already has its own built-in defenses
against them? Recent research published on the preprint server arXiv puts forward an unusual theory: Earth’s gravitational forces may serve as its secret shield against asteroids.

planet uses powerful gravitational interactions with other celestial
bodies to break apart asteroids that approach it. These tidal forces,
akin to those that explain Earth’s tides caused by the Moon, can be so
intense that objects undergo tidal disruption, causing them to be torn

Observations of fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 after
its collision with Jupiter in 1994 provided the first confirmation of
this phenomenon. However, for decades astronomers have been looking for
evidence that Earth or other terrestrial planets could have a similar
effect on asteroids and comets.

Planetary scientist Mikael Granvik
from the Swedish University of Technology, Luleå, led the research that
came closer to solving the above phenomenon.

discovery is linked to the search for gravitationally disrupted
near-Earth asteroids (NEAS), and provides compelling evidence that our
planet’s gravitational forces are not just an abstract concept, but a
factor capable of breaking asteroids into small pieces.

Based on
modeling of asteroid trajectories, Grunwick and colleague Kevin Walsh of
the Southwest Research Institute found that collisions with rocky
planets can cause asteroids to lose a significant portion of their mass,
turning them into debris streams.

New data shows that small
asteroid fragments, while not posing a threat to life on the planet, may
nevertheless increase the likelihood of local collisions like those
that occurred in Tunguska and Chelyabinsk.

Granwick assures that
asteroids smaller than 1 km in diameter are not a critical threat, but
increase the likelihood of incidents. However, it is worth remembering
the additional risks that may arise due to the formation of new debris

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