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Astronomers Acknowledge The Sun’s Evil Twin Exists And Is Heading Our Way

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Astronomers have been on the lookout for the Sun’s ‘evil’ twin ever since the 1980s, when a scientist named Richard Muller theorized about the massive extinction events occurring on earth roughly every 26 million years. Today, researchers seem closer then ever to unraveling this mystery.

Members of the scientific community are well aware of these events, and it’s widely accepted that they were caused by impacting comets and asteroids. These almost regular events, Muller proposed, were caused by none other than the Sun’s twin, dubbed Nemesis after the Greek goddess of divine retribution.
His idea became very controversial across the years, since astronomers have found no trace of the star after decades of sky surveys, that is until now. But, before going into details about the newly acquired evidence, let’s have a look at Muller’s theory.
According to him, there is another star orbiting our sun every 26 million years at a length of 1 to 3 light years from our sun. It may seem very far, but it’s not that much on a galactic scale where the closes known star – Proxima Centauri, is just 4.2 light years away from us.
When Nemesis approaches the sun on its irregular orbit, it disrupts the Ort Cloud – a conglomeration of comets, asteroids and meteors located approximately 1 light year away from the Sun, just at the edge of our solar system. As a result of the collision, these celestial bodies are sent hurtling towards the inner system.
Nemesis is described as a brown dwarf. In other words, it is a failed star, too tiny to sustain nuclear fusion, gassy, dark and hard to spot, but seemingly with an ardent desire to smack everything interfering with its path.
It’s no wonder Muller’s idea was subject to disbelief, since no one was able to spot this rogue star, nor find a similar star to orbit at such a great distance. However, a new mathematical model from UC Berkeley has unveiled just that. Even more, data suggest that almost every star is born with a companion, not excluding our sun.
The team of astronomers at Berkeley have scouted the Perseus Cloud – a stelar fabric approximately 600 light years away, to count the single and binary star systems. A total of 45 single-star systems and 19 binary-star systems were identified.
After analyzing various sets of data, they reached the conclusion that wide binary systems where two stars are further than 500 astronomical units (AU) apart, the stars were younger than 500,000 years. The rest of the stars between 5000,000 and 1 million years, all stood closer, at about 200 AU.
The Perseus cloud appears in the sky as a black spot, since it’s made up of dense gas and dust that blocks light from stars inside and behind it (Credit: FORS Team, 8.2-meter VLT Antu, ESO)
This survey is more than just a coincidence to researchers involved, and believe they have stumbled across a cosmic pattern.
“This has not been seen before or tested, and is super interesting,” notes Sarah Sadavoy, lead author of the study. “We don’t yet know quite what it means, but it isn’t random and must say something about the way wide binaries form.”
Craving for additional answers, the team underwent a series of computer simulations to outline several scenarios. Data showed that all stars with masses compared to that of the Sun come into existence as part of a wide binary system.
With the passing of time, around 60 percent of them break up and arrange into single-star systems, while the others approach and turn into tight binaries.
This being said, although no traces of Nemesis were found so far, the sun is likely to have a wandering evil twin that’s lurking beyond the solar system somewhere within the Milky Way.
“We are saying, yes, there probably was a Nemesis, a long time ago,” said Steven Stahler, co-author of the study.
“We ran a series of statistical models to see if we could account for the relative populations of young single stars and binaries of all separations in the Perseus molecular cloud, and the only model that could reproduce the data was one in which all stars form initially as wide binaries. These systems then either shrink or break apart within a million years.”
With the latest report from last year of disturbed objects hurtling towards the inner solar system, we can expect nemesis to arrive anytime soon, although probably not during our lifetime. But, i guess we’ll never know.
The study is available online, and will soon feature in the monthly notices of the royal astronomical society.
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There’s one last place Planet Nine could be hiding

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A study recently submitted to The Astronomical Journal
continues to search for the elusive Planet Nine (also called Planet X),
which is a hypothetical planet that potentially orbits in the outer
reaches of the solar system and well beyond the orbit of the dwarf
planet, Pluto.

The goal of this study, which is available on the pre-print server arXiv,
was to narrow down the possible locations of Planet Nine and holds the
potential to help researchers better understand the makeup of our solar
system, along with its formation and evolutionary processes. So, what
was the motivation behind this study regarding narrowing down the
location of a potential Planet 9?

Dr. Mike Brown, who is a Richard and Barbara Rosenberg Professor of
Astronomy at Caltech and lead author of the study, tells Universe Today,
“We are continuing to try to systematically cover all of the regions of
the sky where we predict Planet Nine to be. Using data from Pan-STARRS
allowed us to cover the largest region to date.”

Pan-STARRS, which stands for Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid
Response System, is a collaborative astronomical observation system
located at Haleakala Observatory and operated by the University of
Hawai’i Institute of Astronomy. For the study, the researchers used data
from Data Release 2 (DR2) with the goal of narrowing down the possible
location of Planet Nine based on findings from past studies.

In the end, the team narrowed down possible locations of Planet Nine
by eliminating approximately 78% of possible locations that were
calculated from previous studies. Additionally, the researchers also
provided new estimates for the approximate semimajor axis (measured in
astronomical units, AU) and Earth-mass size of Planet Nine at 500 and
6.6, respectively. So, what are the most significant results from this
study, and what follow-up studies are currently being conducted or
planned?

“While I would love to say that the most significant result
was finding Planet Nine, we didn’t,” Dr. Brown tells Universe Today. “So
instead, it means that we have significantly narrowed the search area.
We’ve now surveyed approximately 80% of the regions where we think
Planet Nine might be.”

In terms of follow-up studies, Dr.
Brown tells Universe Today, “I think that the LSST is the most likely
survey to find Planet Nine. When it comes online in a year or two it
will quickly cover much of the search space and, if Planet Nine is
there, find it.”

LSST stands for Legacy Survey of Space and Time, and is an
astronomical survey currently scheduled as a 10-year program to study
the southern sky and take place at the Vera C. Rubin Observatory in
Chile, which is presently under construction.

Objectives for LSST include studying identifying near-Earth asteroids
(NEAs) and small planetary bodies within our solar system, but also
include deep space studies, as well. These include investigating the
properties of dark matter and dark energy and the evolution of the Milky
Way galaxy. But what is the importance of finding Planet Nine?

Dr. Brown tells Universe Today, “This would be the 5th
largest planet of our solar system and the only one with a mass between
Earth and Uranus. Such planets are common around other stars, and we
would suddenly have a chance to study one in our own solar system.”

Scientists began hypothesizing the existence of Planet Nine shortly
after the discovery of Neptune in 1846, including an 1880 memoir
authored by D. Kirkwood and later a 1946 paper authored by American
astronomer, Clyde Tombaugh, who was responsible for discovering Pluto in
1930.

More recent studies include studies from 2016 and 2017 presenting
evidence for the existence of Planet Nine, the former of which was
co-authored by Dr. Brown.

This most recent study marks the
most complete investigation of narrowing down the location of Planet
Nine, which Dr. Brown has long-believed exists, telling Universe Today,
“There are too many separate signs that Planet Nine is there. The solar
system is very difficult to understand without Planet Nine.”

He continues by telling Universe Today that “…Planet Nine explains
many things about orbits of objects in the outer solar system that would
be otherwise unexplainable and would each need some sort of separate
explanation.”

“The cluster of the directions of the orbits is the best know, but
there is also the large perihelion distances of many objects, existence
of highly inclined and even retrograde objects, and the high abundance
of very eccentric orbits which cross inside the orbit of Neptune. None
of these should happen in the solar system, but all are easily
explainable as an effect of Planet Nine.”

More information:
Michael E. Brown et al, A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine, arXiv (2024). DOI: 10.48550/arxiv.2401.17977

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‘October Surprise’: Russia To Launch Nukes in Space

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The ‘national security threat’ announced on Wednesday is
about Russia planning to launch nuclear weapons in space, causing some
to speculate whether it’s really an election year ploy.

The panic began when House Intelligence Committee Chair Mike Turner
(R-Ohio) asked President Biden to declassify information about a
“serious national security threat”.

Modernity.news reports: The weapon would reportedly be designed to be used to take out satellites.

Speaker Mike Johnson (R-La.) responded by telling reporters he wanted “to assure the American people, there is no need for public alarm.”

The big, scary threat is serious business and involves a space-based nuke controlled by evil dictator Putin, but it’s also “not an immediate crisis,” according to what three members of the U.S. House Intelligence Committee have told Politico.

Okay, then. Just for election season, is it?

Zero Hedge reports: “So, the question is – was this:

a) a distraction from Biden’s broken brain, or

2) a last desperate attempt to get more funding for anything-but-the-US-border, or

iii) a path to pitching Putin as the uber-bad-guy again after his interview with Tucker Carlson.”

Just by coincidence, Mike Turner recently returned from Ukraine having lobbied for billions more in weapons and aid for Zelensky’s government.

Some questioned the timing, suggesting it might all be a deep state plot to keep American voters afraid when they hit the ballot box.

Speculation will now rage as to whether this is “the event,” real or imagined, that billionaires and elitists the world over have been building underground survival bunkers in preparation for.

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