(Article by Virgilio Marin republished from NaturalNews.com)
Known as white dwarfs, these dense cores are packed with heavy radioactive elements called actinides that can spontaneously undergo nuclear fission – the splitting of atoms. Depending on certain conditions, these cores can eventually undergo uncontrolled fission, culminating in a massive stellar explosion known as a supernova.
“The conditions to build and set off an atomic bomb seemed very difficult. I was surprised that these conditions might be satisfied in a natural way inside a very dense white dwarf,” Charles Horowitz, a nuclear astrophysicist from Indiana University Bloomington and one of the study’s researchers, told Space.
“If true, this provides a very new way to think about thermonuclear supernovae, and perhaps other astrophysical explosions,” he added.
Nuclear reactions can trigger supernova of white dwarfs
White dwarfs are the dim, Earth-size cores of dead stars. They form when average-sized stars have exhausted their fuel and shed their outer layers. The sun will one day become a white dwarf, as will more than 90 percent of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy.
Past studies show that white dwarfs can die in type Ia supernovae, a type of stellar explosion. Much remains unknown about what triggers type Ia supernovae, but prior research suggests that they can happen when a white dwarf absorbs material from another star. These two celestial objects orbit each other in an arrangement called a binary star system.
In their study, Horowitz and co-author Matt Caplan, a theoretical physicist from Illinois State University, proposed that type Ia supernovae might also occur when a white dwarf undergoes the processes behind the explosion of a hydrogen bomb.
As a white dwarf cools, actinides such as uranium crystallize within its core. The atoms of these elements can spontaneously undergo nuclear fission, which releases energy and neutrons. Neutrons can collide with other atoms and break them up, repeating the process.
If the amount of actinides exceeds a critical mass, these elements can set off an explosive runaway nuclear fission chain reaction. This, in turn, can trigger nuclear fusion, where atomic nuclei fuse with each other and generate enormous amounts of energy in the process.
The pair’s calculations and computer simulations showed that a critical mass of uranium could indeed crystallize from the mixture of elements in a white dwarf. If this heavy uranium were to explode due to a nuclear chain reaction, the white dwarf would become so hot and pressurized as to trigger the fusion of lighter elements, resulting in a supernova. A hydrogen bomb also works the same way – a nuclear chain reaction is initiated to set off a nuclear fusion explosion.
Horowitz said that this mechanism could be responsible for around half of all type Ia supernovae in the cosmos. These stellar explosions should occur within a billion years of a white dwarf’s formation since uranium takes a very long time to decay.
The pair recommended running more computer simulations to definitively answer whether fission chain reactions in white dwarfs could indeed trigger nuclear fusion. Though the study was compelling, Horowitz admitted that there were plenty of physical processes that occur during a supernova, which meant there were many potential uncertainties.
For more fascinating studies about stars and space, visit Cosmic.news.
Vatican Knows More About UFOs Than Intelligence Agencies
Are you still sure that intelligence agencies and scientists know more about extraterrestrial civilizations than anyone else? In fact, science centers, the CIA, and individuals like Elon Musk and Bill Gates know less about UFOs and alien visitations than the Pope. You may be surprised to learn that the Vatican has its own space exploration program.
The Vatican Observatory is an astronomical research and educational institution supported by the Holy See. Originally based in the Roman College of Rome, the Observatory is now headquartered in Castel Gandolfo, Italy, and operates a telescope at the Mount Graham International Observatory in the United States.
Indirect confirmation that the Vatican is “in the know” are the statements of Pope Francis and his predecessor about extraterrestrial life.
Cultists have repeatedly pointed out that people will soon get acquainted with extraterrestrial intelligence, learn more about extraterrestrial civilizations. And there is no doubt that the Vatican takes extraterrestrials more than seriously. For example, the possibility of converting them to Catholicism has been announced.
“Honestly, I wouldn’t know how to answer that,” the Pope replied, explaining that while scientific knowledge has so far ruled out the possibility of other thinking beings in the universe, “until America was discovered, we thought it didn’t exist, and instead it did,” Pope Francis said.
“But in any case, I think we should stick to what scientists tell us, still aware that the Creator is infinitely greater than our knowledge.”
Francis said the one thing he is sure of in the universe and the world we live in is that it is “not the result of chance or chaos,” but rather of divine intelligence.
Yes, the Vatican’s research power pales in comparison to NASA’s latest technological advances, but the facts speak for themselves.
Until the 19th century, this religious organization was known for opening astronomical observatories and scientific schools where young and able scientists were trained in the technique of observing space.
The Vatican Observatory, which still exists today, is one of the oldest and most authoritative on a planetary scale.
But that’s not all. It turns out that the Vatican also has a space program that, according to experts, is not much inferior to the program of the same NASA.
The Vatican has quite modern and powerful telescopes and other observation equipment. The largest telescope observes the universe in the infrared range and significantly exceeds the capabilities of analogues.
And another interesting fact to ponder. While the Vatican conducts space research, more and more people on Earth begin to believe in the reality of extraterrestrial life.
According to statistics, in 1990 this number was estimated at 27% of the world’s population. In 2000 it increased to 33%. Now it is approaching the 65% mark. Thus, the Vatican’s awareness of extraterrestrial life can be seen as a “fire of knowledge”.
Jesuit Father Jose Funes, director of the Vatican Observatory, said Christians should consider alien life as an “extraterrestrial brother” and part of God’s creation.
Father Funes said it is difficult to rule out the possibility that other intelligent life exists in the universe, and he noted that a field of astronomy is now actively searching for “biomarkers” in the spectral analysis of other stars and planets.
These potential forms of life could include those that do not require oxygen or hydrogen, he said. Just as God created multiple forms of life on Earth, he said, there may be multiple forms of life throughout the universe.
“This is not contrary to faith, because we cannot place limits on God’s creative freedom,” he said.
“To use the words of St. Francis, if we consider earthly creatures to be ‘brothers’ and ‘sisters,’ why can’t we also speak of an ‘extraterrestrial brother,'” he said.
According to some scientists, the goals and objectives of church officials have changed somewhat. Now they are clearly focused on preparing humanity for an encounter with extraterrestrials.
Potential ‘portal’ discovered that could be a wormhole in our galaxy
Science has long been interested in the so-called wormholes. These are tunnels in space-time, giving, so far only theoretically, the possibility of instantaneous movement between galaxies.
Recently, for the first time, it turned out that in our Galaxy there is an object similar to a wormhole. It is located at a distance of 1566 light years from us, by space standards within easy reach.
Portals between universes or galaxies are theoretically possible, their existence does not contradict the laws of physics. Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen stated this back in the 1930s.
Later, several theories appeared, in their own way explaining the likelihood of such travel using the so-called wormholes.
One such hypothesis compares a wormhole and a black hole. The entrances to them as a region of powerful gravity are very similar. Based on this analogy, scientists hope that tunnels in space-time can be detected, including using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), the main purpose of which is to observe black holes.
EHT is a complex of radio telescopes located in different parts of the world. With his help, several discoveries have already been made, last year he found a black hole in the center of our native galaxy
In general, there are supposedly millions of such black holes in the Milky Way, and most importantly, some of them are potentially the mouths of wormholes.
Astrophysicists in the United States and Germany recently discovered the first such object. This is Gaia BH1, an object ten times the size of the Sun, located 1566 light-years from Earth.
Gaia BH1 has a Sun-like star orbiting it. Usually, in such binary systems, the black hole is “fed” by the star, simultaneously emitting powerful X-rays. But this black hole does not attract matter to itself and does not radiate anything. Astronomers conventionally call such mysterious objects “sleeping” black holes. They have never before been found in our galaxy.
This is either a “sleeping” black hole, or a perfectly suitable candidate for the “role” of a wormhole. The discovery was made possible by the highly functional Gaia space telescope and the ground-based Gemini telescopes.
Traditionally, a classical wormhole is represented as a three-dimensional tube in a curved two-dimensional space. This does not contradict general relativity, but most scientists believe that such tunnels are only stable if they are filled with exotic matter of negative energy density, which creates a strong gravitational repulsion and prevents the cavity from collapsing.
However, there are also other opinions. For example, Pascal Koiran, professor of computer science at Ecole Normale Superieure of Lyon, published calculations according to which exotic matter is not needed to pass through the wormhole at the level of elementary particles.
Traveling through a wormhole could look like a surreal and disorienting experience. It may appear as if you are traveling through a tunnel of bright light and time is passing by quickly.
You may feel as if you are being transported from one place to another without actually moving. As you move through the wormhole, you could experience changes in gravity or shifts in the space-time continuum.
The inside of the tunnel may appear to be made out of strange and exotic particles, with colors and shapes that seem out of this world. In some cases, the tunnel may even be filled with a mysterious form of energy that seems to be alive.
Wormholes were and remain today the only chance for interstellar flights. So scientists will continue their research, no matter how fantastic they may seem.
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